Quarterly Cluster Report - Humanitarian response in Chad (January - March 2011)
The first quarter of this year has been marked by the prevalence of epidemics: cholera, measles and meningitis. A total of 2,776 persons have been affected by meningitis with 144 deaths, 2,683 by measles with 14 deaths and around 290 cases of cholera with 14 deaths. The Ministry of Health in collaboration with the health cluster coordinates the prevention and riposte activities.
The food security situation has improved compared to the same period in 2010 when the situation was critical in the Sahel belt as a result of the 2009 drought. Food security and vulnerability assessments conducted by the World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and partners revealed that more than two million people were in need of assistance last year. Although the 2010 harvest was good, the food security in pastoral areas is likely to deteriorate, mainly for the poorest pastoral households which have lost most of their livestock and have suffered from two years of successive shocks (2008/2009 and 2009/2010). Furthermore, due to the 2009/2010 food deficit, most rural households were highly indebted and in 2011 they will use part of their harvest for repayments. Over one million severely food-insecure people had not recovered from the 2009 drought and the 2010 floods. Pockets of food insecurity and deficit or risks zones still exist in the Sahel belt and need the attention of the humanitarian actors.
The nutritional context remains of particular concern in the Sahel belt. Global acute malnutrition (GAM) rates are still high in the Sahelian belt. Surveys conducted in August 2010 revealed the following MAG rates:
Wadi Fira (24.9%), Bahr El Gazel (28.1%) and Kanem (22.7%). The emergency threshold is 15% according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). New surveys have been conducted but the report is not yet available.
This year the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) considers for its intervention a caseload of 130,000 malnourished countrywide including 110,000 in the Sahel belt.
Progress has been observed with regard to attaining durable solutions for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). To date the number of IDPs is estimated at 131,000 people while the number of returnees at 50,000.
The main needs in returnee villages are related to water, health, education, shelter and livelihood.
The context is also marked by the effects of the Libyan crisis. Chadian nationals in Libya have started returning back since the beginning of March. More arrivals are expected as 300,000 Chadians have been living in Libya. The Government is supported in the repatriation operations by the International Organisation for Migration (OIM), the United Nations High commissioner for refugees (UNHCR) and the Chadian Red Cross. OCHA chairs a task force on the Libyan crisis.
Around $429 million (47%) 2has been secured for the Consolidated Appeal for Chad (CAP) amounting 506 million USD.