Chad + 4 more

ECHO Factsheet – Chad – January 2017

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Facts & Figures

  • Human Development Index rank: 185th out of 188 countries
  • 1 in 7 Chadian children dies before age 5 (World Bank)
  • Over 228 000 children will depend on life-saving nutrition treatment in 2017 (UNICEF)
  • A total of 3.8 million people are expected to be food insecure in Chad in 2017. 1 million of them will be severely insecure and need humanitarian aid. (Cadre Harmonisé)
  • Over 388 000 refugees mainly from Nigeria, Sudan and the Central African Republic (OCHA)
  • Some 118 000 internally displaced people due to the spill-over of the Lake Chad crisis (IOM)
  • European Commission humanitarian funding: 2016: €62.35 million

Key messages

  • As one of the world's least developed countries, Chad continues to face a complex emergency as a result of chronic food insecurity, under-nutrition* and drought which is expected to be exacerbated by climate change, epidemics and displacement of populations.

  • The spill-over of the Lake Chad crisis is important: Continuous violence by Boko Haram has led to the displacement of some 118 000 people with very serious humanitarian consequences.

  • Chad also hosts refugees and returnees who fled violence in neighbouring Central African Republic, Sudan (Darfur) and Libya. The protracted nature of these displacements puts an additional strain on the ecological and economic resources of an extremely poor population living in an underdeveloped environment.

  • The European Commission's humanitarian aid reached €62.35 million in 2016 and significantly contributed to the treatment of acutely malnourished children, assistance to the displaced people, and to the distribution of food aid* and cash grants to the poorest families during the lean season.

Humanitarian situation and needs

Background

Situated at the junction of five major humanitarian crises – the Sahel, Darfur (Sudan), Central African Republic, Nigeria and Libya - Chad is a fragile state characterised by structural poverty, limited access to clean water and healthcare, inadequate nutrition and low vaccination coverage. These factors combined with cyclical droughts and floods exacerbate people's vulnerabilities, particularly those of children, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers, who suffer high levels of malnutrition. Chad was among the countries worst hit by the 2012 Sahel food and nutrition crisis and was affected by the El Nino weather phenomenon in 2016.

Major needs and related problems Regarding food security, the outlook for 2017 is gloomy, with some 3.8 million people expected to face food insecurity during the lean season – the months between harvests when food is scarce and expensive, out of which 1 million will need emergency food aid.
The results of Chad’s national nutritional survey using the SMART methodology (Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions) show a national global acute malnutrition (GAM) rate of 11.3% with 2.6 % of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). 11 regions out of 20 surpass the emergency threshold for SAM. According to the survey, 228,000 children from 6 to 59 months are expected to suffer SAM in 2017. According to another survey conducted by UNICEF, less than 1% of young Chadian children are exclusively breastfed.

In addition, due to the conflicts in neighboring countries, Chad hosts around 388 000 refugees, the majority of which have lived there for the last 10 years. Most of these refugees are expected to remain in Chad in 2017 where they will continue to rely on host communities and humanitarian assistance.
According to the International Organisation for Migration's Displacement Tracking Matrix, the total number of displaced people (refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) included) affected by Boko Haram violence in the Lake region of the country is estimated at more than 100 000. The local population is also impacted by prices hike and disruption of traditional trade patterns with Nigeria.

Access to displaced populations is still difficult. Some IDPs are located in remote areas, hardly accessible by trucks. Logistics constraints compounded by insecurity render the delivery of aid very challenging. Despite all the efforts deployed by the international community, urgent needs remain to be addressed in all sectors.

Chad is very regularly afflicted by epidemics and disease outbreaks – in particular meningitis, measles, cholera and malaria, hepatitis E owing to a low vaccination coverage and weak water and sanitation infrastructure. The European Union's Humanitaria