- Executive Summary.
Due to erratic rainfall, the 2011 harvests in Chad are expected to be below average with alarming trends. Despite better rains in August and September, the Comité d’Action pour la Sécurité Alimentaire et la Gestion des Catastrophes (Action Committee for Food Security and Disaster Management) has raised serious concerns about risks of famine, which threatens an estimated 1.6 million people already suffering from food insecurity and malnutrition following the previous agricultural plight. In the Sahel belt the rate of acute malnutrition has been above the acceptable threshold for several years (the average in Greater Kanem region is above 22%). After two years of continued shocks, the pastoralist communities will face difficulties in overcoming additional exacerbations.
Chad has also been experiencing one of the worst cholera epidemics in recent history with some 17,000 cases reported, including 455 deaths, since the beginning of 2011, in 37 of the 61 health districts. Chad is also experiencing a resurgence of other diseases such as poliomyelitis, measles and Guinea worm.
Displacement and population movements remain an important cause of concern: with the Libyan crisis, more than 83,244 Chadian migrant workers returned to regions of origin, mostly in and around N‘Djamena and the Sahel belt, an area already vulnerable to food crisis. There are still 288,000 Sudanese refugees in eastern Chad and 75,000 Central African refugees in the southeast of the country. Chad also has 131,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) and 50,000 former IDPs who have returned to their areas of origin. The civilian and humanitarian nature of the refugee camps and IDP sites remains a concern to the humanitarian community. Even though the Government estimates that another 30,000 IDPs are ready to return to their homes soon, lack of basic social services, the absence of rule of law and the lack of a functioning justice in return areas prevent many IDPs from returning. A joint effort of the Chadian authorities, United Nations agencies and the humanitarian community was launched through the Early Recovery cluster that resulted in a common strategy for durable solutions for IDPs that focuses on return, local integration and relocation.
In addition, communities suffer a lack of livelihoods, worsened by price inflation and the degradation of the environment (deforestation, over-exploitation of groundwater and pressure on scarce natural resources). Survival strategies of host communities are often dependant on climate conditions with frequent natural disasters such as floods and droughts that greatly affect their vulnerability.
The Government of Chad has assumed full responsibility for the protection of civilians and the safety and security of humanitarian actors in the country since the withdrawal of Mission des Nations Unies en République Centrafricaine et au Tchad (United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad) at the end of 2010. Arrangements have been implemented to reinforce security conditions in eastern and southern Chad, with the additional deployment of the national police and gendarmerie, the Garde National et Nomade du Tchad (National and Nomadic Guard of Chad) and Détachement Intégré de Sécurité (Integrated Security Unit) plus as the joint Chado-Sudanese Force. As the situation in eastern Chad has steadily improved this year, administrative constraints linked tocirculation of humanitarian actors have been more flexible, although the judicial system is still weak and impunity prevails.
The rise in banditry in conjunction with the Libyan crisis will be a security challenge in 2012. This increased threat of criminality affects both civilians and humanitarian actors. The presence of unexploded ordnance in the north and east of the country and the proliferation of small arms amongst the civilian population are further security threats impeding the effective delivery of humanitarian aid.
In 2012, the strategic objectives of the humanitarian community will focus on the search for and consolidation of durable solutions, while continuing with life-saving assistance to the most vulnerable of those affected by crises (IDPs, refugees, returnees and local populations). Transition from emergency assistance towards early recovery is a key issue for the humanitarian community, especially in the light of the absence so far of financial resources dedicated to early recovery actions and the limitation of development actors to implement medium- to longer-term development projects.
Strengthening the capacity of national actors and local communities to prevent, respond and manage the crisis situations and the humanitarian consequences remains an important strategic priority for the humanitarian community. Through the consolidated appeal process, the humanitarian community supports the Government of Chad in its efforts to respond to emergencies. For instance, this year the Government disbursed 400 million CFA francs (US$1889,000) to fight the cholera epidemic.
As of 15 November 2011, the 2011 Chad Consolidated Appeal has received 57% of its required funding. However, some sectors are largely underfunded. Protection has only been 10% funded, education 9% and early recovery has received no funding at all. A balanced funding level among the different sectors of humanitarian action is essential to ensure durable solutions and acceptable living conditions for vulnerable communities and provide an opportunity to return to self-sufficiency. This consolidated appeal identifies as priorities the humanitarian needs in four areas: malnutrition/food insecurity, epidemics, population movements and the impact of the Libyan crisis. To implement the projects submitted in this Consolidated Appeal for Chad for 2012, nine United Nations agencies, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and 15 non-governmental organizations in consultation with the Chadian Government and local actors are appealing for $455,173,291.
- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
- To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.