Chad: Situation in the Lac region and impact of the Nigerian crisis Situation Report n° 29 (26/04/2018)
This SitRep was produced by OCHA in association with humanitarian partners and is focused on the internal displacements since 21 July 2015. It was published by OCHA Chad and covers the period from 1 January to 28 February 2018. The next publication will be around 15 May 2018.
• The joint military operations of the Multinational Joint Taskforce in the Lake Chad Basin could lead to new population movements and limit humanitarian access in some areas.
• According to the results of the Harmonized Framework of March 2018, more than 159,000 people will be in “crisis” and “emergency” phases in the region during the 2018 lean season (June-August).
• The UN Assistant Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator Ursula Mueller visited Chad and went to the Lac region on 27 February. She called for increased funding to respond to the humanitarian and protection needs, as well as the implementation of durable solutions for people affected by the crisis in the Lac region.
• More than US $ 179.4 million must be mobilized in 2018 for the humanitarian community to support the 353,000 most vulnerable people.
127,838* Estimated displaced people since May 2015
- 101,905 internally displaced people
- 24,681 Chadian returnees
- 1,252 third-country nationals
Source: Shelter/NFI/CCCM Cluster – IOM (Displacement Tracking Matrix from October 2017)
51,000 Internally displaced returned to their villages of origin
Sources: multisector assessments from February and June 2017
9,494 Refugees, including 6,869 residing in Dar-es-Salam camp arrived since January 2015.
Source : HCR/CNARR (30/03/2018)
The security situation is marked by the beginning of the joint military operation of the Multinational Joint Taskforce in the Lake Chad Basin, which is expected to take place mostly in Nigeria and last until the rainy season (June). Unlike previous operations, this joint operation will include aerial bombing and heavy artillery. This could lead to new population movements, limit humanitarian access and generate UXOs in areas where military operations take place.
According to the results of the humanitarian access survey, from October to December 2017, organizations responding to the survey state that their humanitarian interventions were moderately affected by insecurity and military operations, including 61% in Kaiga Kindjria sub-prefecture, and 65% in Ngouboua. Overall, this is an improvement compared to the third quarter of 2017, when a majority of organizations reported being heavily impacted. In general, the presence of humanitarian actors is still limited in some areas, such as Kaiga Kindjiria and Tchoukoutalia.
A multi-sector assessment in Ngouboua sub-prefecture conducted from 6 to 7 February 2018 covered 20 sites hosting 9,015 people (2,523 households). This assessment is part of a series of assessments conducted since November 2017, following the identification by IOM of sites that have never been assessed. The assessment in Ngouboua area identified significant needs in food security, non-food items, health and education. Eight priority sites have been identified: Kola 3, Kola 4, Lolia 2, Kaya 1, Kaya 2, Boud 2, Boudoumarom and Kangalia.
The fifth and last multi-sector assessment of this series was conducted from 27 to 29 March in Kangalom islands. Of the 13 sites and villages to be assessed, seven (Blarigui, Doubaba, Korodji, Farguimi, Tchongole, Barkaria 1 and Barkaria 2) were visited. The remaining six (Daal, Maday, Megra, Ridjibo, Ndjiguilia and Choua) were not assessed due to physical inaccessibility at a time when lake water levels are decreasing and shifting weeds are preventing smooth navigation in the water. Tchongole site was assessed by the REACH team who stayed in this area.
Following the finalization of this series of multi-sector assessments, a workshop was organized on 10 and 11 April, bringing together national cluster coordinators, regional sub-clusters, and regional state technical services, to analyze the results of these assessments, the response provided, and thus identify priority sites and needs not yet covered. Severity criteria were jointly defined and allowed for the revision of the severity level of each site and village according to the identified needs and the response provided. The needs quantified by sector are being finalized. This will strengthen the prioritization of the humanitarian response in the region as well as advocacy, in a context of low funding. A total of 95 sites were covered by the multi-sector assessments conducted between November 2017 and March 2018.
According to the multi-sector assessment conducted by REACH in November 2017, the three main causes of displacement in the Lac region are insecurity, loss of livelihoods, and difficulties accessing food. Food insecurity is therefore a major cause of displacement, resulting in secondary displacement to sites where humanitarian aid is available, as well as commuting and seasonal movements. Some of the sites visited by the mission were empty, thus confirming the dynamic of return to areas of origin, as well as the possibility that people commute between their land and the displacement sites depending on the agricultural season. Displacements occur mainly within the same sub-prefecture. Restrictions on the movement of goods and people continue to undermine access to livelihoods. Similarly, the fact that most IDPs live in the main sites limits access to land and leads to increased dependence on humanitarian assistance. For example, in 35% of the sites, IDPs report that they have no access to land, and food distributions are the main source of food in 62% of the sites. This can also lead to community tensions.
The REACH assessment also reveals that access to basic services remains a major challenge for the entire population, whether displaced or not: less than 30% of surveyed villages have a functioning primary school. Access to health care is limited by lack of transportation and the high cost of health care. Access to safe drinking water is also a challenge. A new assessment in return areas in islands south of Bol and in Kangalom was carried out in March/April and results are being finalized.
According to the results of the Harmonized Framework of March 2018, more than 159,000 people will be in “crisis” and “emergency” phases and will need emergency food assistance in the Lac region during the 2018 lean season (June-August). The food situation of more than 169,000 people will also be precarious. The situation has deteriorated compared to the 2017 lean season, during which 123,000 people were in “crisis” and “emergency” phases in the region.
Fires are recurrent in the region, often related to fires lit in straw huts. On 11 April, a fire damaged a hut on Kafia site. On 8 March, a fire in Bah Boul village (7 km from Baga Sola) caused the death of a child and many material damages. In this context, it is necessary to sensitize communities to reduce the risks, to set up an early warning system and a preparedness strategy for this type of incidents as well as contingency stocks to support the victims of fires.