Summary of main revisions made to Emergency Plan of Action (EPoA):
The Chad has experience with long-running violence associated with armed opposition groups, although usually not in the direct area of intervention for this DREF. The region, which shares boundary with Nigeria recently experienced in late September early October 2017 a worsening of the security situation. Indeed, following security incidents in as a precautionary measure, authorities (Prefect, Governors), recommended humanitarian actors to suspend their field activities for a few weeks to allow them to address security issues. Although operations have resumed activities on 10 October, this caused a slowdown and delays in the food security relief activities (distribution of food vouchers, nutrition screening and WASH activities). Compounding, temporary shortage in the availability of food in the markets also caused delays in the implementation of activities. Finally, a lessons-learned workshop that aims at analysing the successes, challenges, best practices of the operation, scheduled for late November 2017, has been postponed until December 2017.
Considering the above reasons, this operation update is being issued to request a two-month extension until 11 January 2018, to complete all planned activities.
A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Chad contains pockets of severe food insecurity with population facing serious nutritional issues. In March, according to the latest Cadre Harmonise
• About 13,102 people were in Emergency (phase 4);
• An estimated 367,218 people in four districts were in Crisis (phase 3). These vulnerable people and among them, the poorest needed food, affordable basic commodities, rehabilitation and nutrition, health and other livelihood assistance and capacity-building for resilience;
• An estimated 1,886,800 people in 18 districts were in Stress (phase 2). These people need support to build resilience, develop their livelihoods and keep severe malnutrition at acceptably low levels.
Projected figures showed a worsening projected situation with more than 897,408 people in Crisis or Emergency situation (Phase3 to 5) from June to August.
Humanitarian efforts of the government and its partners were not able to curb the progression of the difficulty of accessing food.
Some factors are compounding the crisis.
• The ongoing economic crisis in Chad continues to maintain seasonal demand for cereals at low levels compared with a normal year and this on almost all cereal markets, despite their normal functioning.
• The closure of the Libyan border (between 5 January and 28 February 2017) had a stronger negative impact on the markets for the BET region2 , Wadi Fire, Ouaddai, Bahr El Gazel and Kanem. Compared to a normal year, these markets experience a real increase in the prices of manufactured food products.
• The conflictual situation in the Lake Chad Region and Northern Nigeria is causing population movement along with insecurity since the affected population cannot produce enough to feed themselves and meet their basic needs • Flooding has been experienced in this region, although it is an isolated issue and with minor consequences.
Floods are alternated by droughts (10 to 15 days). These two hazards affect crops and destroy plantations (corn, groundnut etc.) which are harvested during the lean period as an alternative food item, while pending the large harvests between the end of October and November.
The Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS)3 , a surveillance agency for food security in Sahel, reported in September that in terms of rainfall, although a surplus to normal situation predominated overall in the Sahel until 31 August, pockets of water deficit were still observed in Chad. Looking ahead to the rest of the season, rainfall is expected to exceed the 1981-2010 average over the West and Central Sahel but a rainfall deficit is forecasted for some countries among which Chad which should experience Food security issues.
In view of this food crisis, food aid, accompanied by strong actions for better nutritional and livelihood protection, is required. Considering that the food and nutritional situation is periodic (lean season), the Red Cross of Chad (CRC) with the support from the IFRC Sahel Country Cluster Support Team (Sahel Cluster) and the IFRC Niger Country Cluster, have made a commitment to work upstream (preparation) and downstream (post-response) to better understand the food insecurity problem and provide adequate short and long-term interventions. The support from this Disaster Response Emergency Fund is geared towards responding to the emergency in the vulnerable groups identified and to start the foundation for detailed assessments to feed in stronger planning for a four-year program, based on a preparedness and resilience approach.