A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
The rainy season has seen record rainfall this year in Chad, and the Sahel in general, and it is not over yet. The end of August marked the onset of heavy rains causing flooding in the country and the flooding continues to this day. The frequency of the rains is regular and sometimes extends over a period of several days in a row.
The cumulative rainfall recorded in N'Djamena is far higher than in previous years. The rains have caused numerous floods on most of the national territory: in the centre, in the south, in the east, around the lake areas and in the capital Ndjamena. Government statistics indicate that the floods affected nearly 190,000 people. These floods generate many problems for the populations, urgent needs but also in the medium term: destroyed houses, flooded fields, damaged agricultural crops, food needs, among others.
On September 18, 2020, the Ministry of Economy, Planning and Development and International Cooperation issued an emergency declaration and appealed for support for people affected by the floods in Chad. The Appeal was made to the Humanitarian Community to meet the urgent needs of the affected population.
Flooding is a major concern in N’Djamena. Government figures indicate that nearly 32,000 people have been affected by the floods in the capital. Many houses have been destroyed or partially destroyed in several areas of the city. Built around the Chari River which runs through Central Africa and feeds 90% of Lake Chad, N'Djamena is prone to flooding, especially when the river overflows during heavy rains. N’djamena covers an area of 395 km2 and has a population of over 1,425,703, of which 721,081 live mainly in urban areas. 7,122 households of 31,853 people were affected by recent flooding in 15 neighbourhoods of the city. The floods destroyed around 5,000 homes and killed 10 people. Those affected have found refuge in their own neighbourhood or in neighbouring neighbourhoods; some are hosted by family members, but many remain homeless.
The extent of damages noted in the capital N'Djamena this year, due to the heavy rains, is far more significant than in other provinces which justifies prioritising the emergency response in the capital. Additionally, the intensity and scale of the flooding in N'Djamena was unpredictable, as it has been far greater than in other years. This has made it therefore more exceptional in the capital than in other provinces of the national territory.
It is worth also adding that many humanitarian partners are headquartered in N'Djamena but conduct their programmes and activities in other provinces. Therefore, N'Djamena has little or no overall humanitarian programme coverage. It has been noted some challenges faced by other actors/NGOs in organising humanitarian assistance and rapid implementation in N'Djamena. However, Chad Red Cross is well represented in N'Djamena and has logistical and human resources that allow a rapid response in the capital. The National Society will also rely on its network of volunteers and its local anchoring within N'Djamena communities for a smooth implementation of relief activities.
State authorities, with support of humanitarian actors, have searched for sites to relocate the homeless. It was noted during the assessment that most of the affected peoples are in host families, with the exception of those without shelter who are temporarily housed in the classrooms of Lycée Walia and who need emergency assistance.
The urgent needs identified are basic needs for food, drinking water, essential household and hygiene items, mats, blankets and mosquito nets as well as emergency shelter.
Flooding has also been reported in parts of Lac province, which already hosts 363,807 displaced people (more than half the population), of which 33,000 are displaced due to the floods. More than 14,000 hectares of crops owned by more than 55,000 people are destroyed by heavy rains at the risk of affecting the food capacity and livelihoods of families around the Lake. Meanwhile, the rains continue, and the rising waters have yet to reach their peak, which often occurs between September-October. This situation foresees a poor growing season requiring a double support in food and seeds to limit the damage.
The southern region is also affected. Mandoul province, where major losses of agricultural crops were observed as a result of heavy rains recorded between July and September 2020. This situation affects the livelihoods of the populations. Some shelters are also affected. The most immediate needs are the distribution of food for 4,500 households, emergency livelihood support for 2,250 households, the distribution of tarpaulins and essential household items to 4,470 households whose houses have been severely damaged. Drug support, particularly antimalarial drugs, to health facilities is important during this high malaria in the southern regions. The province of Tandjile has around 80,000 people affected. The province of Mayo-Kebi East has about 62,000 people affected. More detailed assessments are underway for these provinces.
The Southeast region is also affected. In the province of Batha: 3,113 households (more than 18,000 people) were affected in the city of Oum-Hadjer following the rise of the river and the rains recorded in August 2020. Other villages in Bathas province have also been affected by the flooding and where 2,063 households have been affected. These people primarily need assistance in terms of food, essential household items (NFIs) and support for water, hygiene and sanitation. In the province of Salamat, 3,294 households (more than 10,000 people) were affected in the locality of Mouraye. 549 houses have collapsed and 23,000 ha of fields of all crops flooded or destroyed. The priority needs of disaster affected peoples are food, NFIs and WASH support. In the Province of Sila, 2 villages of Gozbeida are affected with a total of 965 ha of crops destroyed. In addition, 15 villages in the sub-prefecture of Kerfi were affected with a provisional toll of 1,471 ha destroyed and 530 people affected. In Wadi-Fira province, flooding has also been reported in the Arada area, but details on the impact of the damage are not yet available. In the province of Ennedi-Ouest, according to the provincial authorities, 412 houses collapsed in Fada and 208 in Kalait. The priority needs of disaster affected peoples are food, NFIs and WASH support. There are currently no figures on affected peoples.
The country also continues to face the COVID-19 crisis which exacerbates existing vulnerabilities. Moderate to locally heavy rains are still expected in the coming days over central and southern Chad.
Several evaluations have been carried out by the humanitarian community, in partnership with state structures, in particular in Oum-Hadjer, in Batha as well as in Ati, in Lake or in the city of N'Djamena by the Chad Red Cross and NGOs, and others are underway in the southern part of the country in Mandoul. Physical access to several localities is difficult preventing the organization of assessments in some provinces.
For the response, insufficient emergency funding and the lack of available stocks do not cover all the identified needs of the most vulnerable affected peoples.
Across the country, nearly 38,000 households have been affected by the floods. An analysis by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) comparing rainfall between 2015, 2019 and 2020 for the months of May, June and July shows a degradation and a sharp increase in rainfall for each observed month and from one year to another. According to the National Meteorological Agency, 2020 will be humid until November.