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Central African Republic Crisis Response Plan 2021

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IOM Vision

IOM intends to provide multisectoral humanitarian assistance to conflict and disaster-affected populations in the Central African Republic (CAR) while promoting durable solutions tailored to the local needs and priorities of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and communities.

Context Analysis

The Central African Republic (CAR) has been suffering from a complex humanitarian crisis since the beginning of the armed conflict in 2013. Displacement and violence occurring in an already fragile national context have had serious consequences on the protection of civilians, their living conditions and their physical and mental wellbeing. The most recent Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) identifies 2.8 million people in need, among whom 1.9 million are in acute need, with half being children under the age of 18. Years of conflict and under-investment have had a devastating impact on access to basic essential services. The number of people in need of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services increased by 8 per cent to 2.5 million people in 2021. According to the results of the latest analysis of the Integrated Food Security Classification (IPC) Framework of September 2020, 1.9 million people are affected by acute food insecurity. Serious violations of the fundamental rights of children continue to occur across the country, including the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict, sexual violence and limited access to education. Due to the lack of security to enforce law and order, the affected population is subject to widespread gender-based violence (GBV), health risks including exposure to HIV/AIDS and various forms of exploitation, discrimination, and abuse.

Approximately one out of four CAR citizens are displaced within the country or in neighbouring countries. Such as in previous years, the reasons for displacement include attacks on the civilian population, attacks on and clashes between armed groups, inter-communal violence and clashes, and conflict between livestock breeders and farmers and/or armed groups, as well as the fear of such attacks and clashes. Moreover, natural disasters are now the reason for the displacement of 3% of IDPs. According to IOM’s latest DTM narrative report (August-October 2020), there is a general decrease in the internally displaced population (-21%) in favour of internal return movements (+17%) and returns from abroad compared to the results of January 2020.

On 14 March 2020, the first case of COVID-19 was detected in CAR. Seven months later, 4,854 people tested positive and 62 died. Against this unfavourable backdrop, the COVID-19 crisis caused the country's economic indicators to plummet. According to a government agency (l’Unité Mixte d’Intervention Rapide et de Répression des violences sexuelles faites aux femmes et aux enfants, UMIRR), violence against women and children increased after the pandemic was declared. According to IOM's DTM, 67 IDP locations have mentioned discrimination practices towards IDPs due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Despite the hopes raised by the signing of the Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation (APPR) in February 2019, the security context remains volatile and unpredictable. Violence continued throughout 2019 and 2020, causing loss of life, suffering and displacement of the populations taking refuge in dedicated sites or with host families