Cambodia + 8 more

South East Asia Appeal No. 01.65/2003

Source
Published

Attachments


2003
(In CHF)
20042
(In CHF)
1. Health and Care
924,668
971,000
2. Disaster Management
728,732
766,000
3. Humanitarian Values
289,134
304,000
4. Organizational Development
431,530
453,000
5. Federation Coordination
172,193
181,000
6. International Representation
3,337
4,000
Total
2,549,5931
2,679,000
1 USD 1,747,479 or EUR 1,732,857.
2 These are preliminary budget figures for 2004, and are subject to revision.

Introduction

The South East Asia region comprises a kaleidoscope of 11 countries - including East Timor, the world's newest nation - with a total population of around 550 million people, of which more than 100 million live below the poverty line. It is a region characterised by large diversity with regard to socio-economic and human development levels, political systems, cultural, religious and ethnic patterns, population sizes and geographic features. It is markedly disaster-prone, with two countries - Indonesia and the Philippines - struck by calamity somewhere within their borders almost on a daily basis. Rarely a year passes without serious flooding along the Mekong river affecting tens of thousands in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, while Myanmar's political isolation poses significant difficulties for disaster response when the need arises.

The region is gradually emerging from the Asian economic crisis of 1997/98, with stability returning to Brunei, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore, though elsewhere the recovery continues to be slow and painful. Disparity within and between countries have resulted in extensive labour migration in the region. In part this is a well-established and regulated phenomenon, particularly with labour migration from the Philippines to countries in South East and East Asia and the Middle East, which constitutes a major source of national income. But much migration is considered illegal by the 'host' government and gives rise to vulnerability among migrants, who invariably work under unhealthy and dangerous conditions, with lack of access to health and social services, and absence of legal protection. Extensive cross-border movements contribute to the spread of infectious disease in the region.

Meanwhile, disease patterns are changing, influenced by socio-economic transformation and possibly also by climate change. Increasingly serious dengue epidemics in many countries - including middle or high income countries such as Malaysia and Singapore - and the emergence of a new 'Nipah' virus that claimed a hundred pig-farmers lives in Malaysia in 1999 are examples of epidemiological change. Although Thailand has successfully achieved a decline in HIV infection rates, other countries face an alarming AIDS situation. Those countries in economic transition also simultaneously experience ill-health patterns typical of developing countries as well as those of affluence, creating a double burden for governments.

It is against this complex and challenging background that the region's Red Cross Red Crescent societies must operate in the never-ending quest to improve the situation of the most vulnerable by harnessing the power of humanity. These societies - long established apart from the newly-formed Cruz Vermelha de Timor Leste - are uniquely positioned in their respective countries through their extensive national network and a huge volunteers base, to play a vital auxiliary role with their governments in addressing the humanitarian imperative. As the charts below indicate, the diversity of the vulnerability and stability in South East Asia is immense.


Key Regional Human Development Indicators: Socio-economic
Country
HDI Rank
Gender
HDI Rank
Life Expectancy at Birth
Adult Literacy Rate
Estimated Earned Income (PPP US$)
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Singapore
25
24
79.8
75.4
88.4
96.3
13,693
27,739
Brunei
32
31
78.5
73.8
88.1
94.6
10,865
24,163
Malaysia
59
54
75.0
70.1
83.4
91.4
5,153
11,183
Thailand
70
60
73.2
67.3
93.9
97.1
4,634
7,660
Philippines
77
63
71.3
67.3
95.1
95.5
2,684
4,910
VietNam
109
89
70.6
65.9
91.4
95.5
1,552
2,170
Indonesia
110
91
68.2
64.3
82.0
91.8
1,929
3,780
Myanmar
127
106
58.5
53.7
80.5
89.0
746
1,311
Cambodia
130
109
58.6
53.9
57.1
79.8
1,190
1,541
Laos
143
118
54.8
52.2
33.2
64.1
1,169
1,774
East Timor
153
-
59.2
55.6
42.8
43.1
-
-

Key Regional Human Development Indicators: Health
Country
Population with access to
HIV/AIDS Prevalence
Adequate sanitation %
Improved water sources %
Essential drugs %
Adult Rate (age 15-49) %
Women (age 15-49)
Children (age 0-14)
Singapore
100
100
95
0.20
860
<100
Brunei
-
-
95
-
-
-
Malaysia
-
-
50
0.35
11.000
770
Thailand
96
80
95
1.79
220,000
21,900
Philippines
83
87
50
<0.10
2,500
<10
VietNam
73
56
80
0.30
35,000
2,500
Indonesia
66
76
80
0.10
27,000
1,300
Myanmar
46
68
50
-
-
-
Cambodia
18
30
49
2.70
74,000
12,000
Laos
46
90
50
<0.10
350
<100
East Timor
38
50
-
-
-
-
Source: Human Development Index (HDI), Human Development Report, UNDP 2002.

Over the coming year and into 2004, the Federation Secretariat, though its regional delegation in Bangkok, supported by strategically located country delegations and offices, will continue to add value as the architect of Red Cross Red Crescent cooperation and coordinator of international assistance in South East Asia. Health and care, disaster management, promotion of humanitarian values and organisational development will remain the primary programme areas where the regional delegation will maintain capability to provide technical support and advice to the national societies and the country delegations/offices in the region.

Regional Strategy

The International Federation's South East Asia regional delegation was established in Kuala Lumpur in 1991 and transferred to Bangkok in June 2000. In line with the Federation's regionalisation process, initiated in 2001, the six Federation delegations and offices currently based in South East Asia (Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam) are managed from the regional delegation, which offers support to all 11 of the region's Red Cross Red Crescent societies - including Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Singapore - through technical units specialising in health and care, disaster management, information and organisational development.

From 2003 the Federation will continue to move away from direct programme implementation towards regional coordination, facilitation and providing technical support, in keeping with its principle task of empowering national societies in South East Asia to deliver activities that have the greatest impact on vulnerability.

Key focus points for the Federation Secretariat in South East Asia during 2003 and 2004 will centre on developing: national and international recognition of humanitarian needs and of the Red Cross Red Crescent's role in addressing them - and its action being matched with adequate resources; the organisational characteristics and technical capacity within the national societies to identify and address existing and new vulnerability and to publicise their action; regional capacity in providing a first response during emergencies as well as long term technical support in the areas of disaster preparedness, health, organisational development and information, including the ability to advise national societies on new humanitarian concerns in the region; increased interaction with ICRC and with other external partners.

There will be considerable emphasis too, on supporting and working with Red Cross Red Crescent partners undertaking bilateral activities in the region. Realistically, the interest of the major donor governments is largely reflected through bilateral assistance from the respective PNS. Progress has been made in the coordination of bilateral and multilateral Red Cross Red Crescent aid to some countries, particularly in Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos, but the Federation is facing growing difficulties in securing sufficient funding to maintain a minimum infrastructure for effective coordination.

The increasing mix of Red Cross Red Crescent multilateral and bilateral initiatives in South East Asia (and elsewhere) intensifies the importance of developing cooperation agreement strategies (CAS) in the respective countries. In September 2002, the Lao Red Cross reached agreement with its partners on a CAS document and the process is also underway in Cambodia, Indonesia and Vietnam - with similar activity elsewhere in the region a high priority.

During 2003, the International Federation intends to establish a regional service centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to provide day-to-day support for Asia Pacific national societies and delegations/offices in the critical functions of finance and reporting, extending to human resources, logistics and telecommunications as relevant factors, including resourcing, allow. Click below for more details on this important Red Cross Red Crescent initiative in the Asia Pacific region.

http://www.ifrc.org/cgi/pdf_appeals.pl?annual03/klrsc.pdf

National Society Priorities

The diversity of countries and their populations throughout South East Asia demands different approaches to the range of humanitarian challenges and opportunities which face the national societies in the region's 11 territories. Each Society, therefore, formulates its own specific priorities reflecting the particular needs of vulnerable groups and the linkages and interaction with the respective authorities. In recent years, all the Societies have agreed on a series broad priorities in the interests of consistency and coherence across the region: disaster response and preparedness, new and re-emerging diseases, the young and old, relationships with governments, governance and management, human and financial resources and public relations.

For those national societies with an in-country Federation presence and seeking support for multilateral programmes through this appeal - Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam - a separate section in each narrative text details their respective priorities. There are five Societies which call on the Federation's regional delegation for technical assistance as and when necessary, whose main priorities/activities can be summarised as follows:

  • Brunei: assistance to civil authorities; training.

  • Malaysia: health (first aid, ambulance service, primary health care, HIV/AIDS, blood): disaster preparedness and response; youth.

  • Philippines: relief and preparedness; health (home nursing, primary health care); blood (collection and testing); safety services; social welfare; youth; international.

  • Thailand: relief; health (hospital facilities, nursing school, HIV/AIDS); blood (collection and testing); social services; youth.

  • Singapore: social welfare; blood donor recruitment; ambulance service; training centre; international.

Red Cross and Red Crescent Priorities

Three overall priority areas for Red Cross Red Crescent activities in South East Asia are defined in the Federation's current regional assistance strategy, which is due for review and update during 2003/2004, following the VIth Asia Pacific regional conference in Manila (November 2002):

  • There is national and international recognition of humanitarian needs in SE Asia and of the Red Cross Red Crescent's role in addressing them, with its actions being matched with adequate resources.

Primary strategies in achieving this aim centre on advocacy in international and regional bodies, particularly ESCAP, ASEAN Regional Forum, WHO and with individual governments, as well as networking.
  • National Societies possess the organisational characteristics and technical capacity to identify and address existing and new vulnerabilities and to publicise their action.

Principal strategies include regional and national workshops, seminars and training opportunities, staff exchange and on the job training, offering of technical advice by Federation staff or other resource persons, networking and information sharing.
  • The Federation Secretariat, through its SE Asia regional delegation is capable of providing a first response during emergencies as well as long term technical support in the areas of disaster preparedness, health, organisational development and information, including the ability to advise national societies on new humanitarian concerns in the region.

The focus here is on quality of staffing and the flexibility of the regional delegation to be able to respond immediately to emergencies, while retaining the ability to carry out continuous technical tasks and advisory services for national societies.

Consistent with the foregoing is the imperative of close linkages between all components of the Movement, especially the Federation and ICRC at regional and country level. The ICRC's network in SE Asia extends to two regional delegations (Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) and four country delegations (East Timor, Indonesia, Myanmar and the Philippines). In the countries covered by the regional delegations (which include Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam for Bangkok and Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore for Kuala Lumpur), the ICRC works to promote the ratification and implementation of humanitarian treaties, to encourage incorporation of international humanitarian law (IHL) into military training programmes and to support the development of national societies. In Cambodia, the ICRC helps restore family links, visits detainees and assists disabled people who are victims of past conflicts.

In East Timor, the ICRC has concentrated on restoring family links, and on protecting detainees and civilians who may be at risk. It also works to support the formation of a national Red Cross society. Its water-sanitation project, launched at the end of the 1980s, was formally handed over to the East Timor Red Cross early in 2002. In neighbouring Indonesia's trouble spots of the Moluccas, Aceh and Irian Jaya, the ICRC works closely with the Indonesian Red Cross Society to protect and assist victims of violence, especially displaced and resident populations whose livelihood or family contacts have been disrupted by fighting. Throughout the country, the ICRC works to broaden the acceptance of IHL by promoting its implementation, supporting its inclusion in training programmes for armed forces and police personnel, and developing activities with universities to foster the study of IHL in academic circles.

The ICRC also makes regular visits to people deprived of their freedom in Myanmar. It supports prosthetic/orthotic programmes for mine casualties and other disabled people. In Shan, Kayin and Mon states, where weakened infrastructure, isolation and the security situation make the population particularly vulnerable, the ICRC addresses basic sanitation needs in selected villages and assists hospitals providing surgical care to the wounded.

In the Philippines, the ICRC works to assist and protect civilians displaced or otherwise affected by armed clashes between the government and insurgent groups, primarily on the southern island of Mindanao. It acts as a neutral intermediary between opposing parties in matters of humanitarian concern, visits detainees held in connection with security matters and works with the Philippine National Red Cross to provide assistance to the displaced and to promote IHL and humanitarian principles in all sectors of society.

Priority Programmes for Secretariat Assistance

Federation Secretariat support for SE Asia in 2003/2004 has been developed on the basis of the considerable humanitarian needs in the region, the development requirements of national societies, the comparative advantages of the Red Cross Red Crescent, including the Federation membership and the strong external support already being provided on a bilateral basis. Priority will be given to strengthening the capacity of the region's national societies to deliver integrated and effective programmes to the most needy, focusing on:

  • Health and Care: the Federation will seek to ensure there is a sustainable improvement in the general health of vulnerable communities in the region, through projects and activities which focus on capacity development, support for regional health networks, coordination and advocacy.

  • Disaster Management: the Federation will provide technical support to help national societies to be well prepared and able to respond to disasters in a timely, efficient and coordinated manner, through direct linkage, as required, to the Federation's response system, thus improving the ability of communities at risk to cope with disasters.

  • Humanitarian Values: the Federation will work to ensure national societies in SE Asia are motivated and able to generate a high degree of visibility, credibility, cooperation and support for Red Cross Red Crescent activities.

  • Organisational Development: the Federation's regional organisational development programme will assist SE Asia national societies to make measurable progress towards meeting the criteria defined in the 'characteristics of a well functioning national society' document, thereby strengthening their capability to assist vulnerable people at the community level.

  • Federation Coordination: the Federation will work with the regional national societies, ICRC and PNS to help ensure that external support is provided in the best long term strategic interest of the national societies in the region and contributes towards Red Cross Red Crescent capacity building.

  • International Representation: through enhanced interaction with the international community across SE Asia, the Federation will seek to create a platform whereby the Red Cross Red Crescent is widely regarded as a major humanitarian organisation in the region.

  • Field Management: the Federation is committed to delivering effective and efficient management and coordination of its programmes and activities as reflected in this appeal.

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