1 Context in Côte d’Ivoire and PBF interventions
SE01. Since the end of the 1990s, Côte d’Ivoire has faced a series of political and security crises, including the division of its territory into two separate zones for almost a decade, spells of social protest and violence with a detrimental effect on the performance of the national economy and the sovereign functions of State and administrative capacities, leading to large-scale violations of human rights, notably sexual violence, and in particular against girls and women. Political competition and manipulation remain major concerns among the key drivers of violence, particularly in light of upcoming elections in 2020 and the fact that underlying factors of tensions and conflicts remain, or, in some cases, have worsened.
SE02. The land ownership system has been generating tensions and conflicts within and across communities, destroying the social fabric and eroding social cohesion, as well as causing conflicts across borders and against the State. In addition, issues including illegal exploitation of mining resources, conflicts between farmers and herders, poverty affecting nearly half of the population despite positive macroeconomic indicators, and the question of identity (the concept of “ivoirity”) in a context of strong demographic and migratory pressure (internal and regional) constitute additional sources of conflict. The crisis of chiefdoms weakens local conflict management systems. It should also be noted that most of the population is under 25 and that youth and women are most often marginalized from the benefits of economic growth and decision-making processes. Despite an improved security situation and the political will demonstrated by the Government to address conflict drivers and the divide among the population and toward the State, the sense of impunity and lack of trust in the Ivoirian justice system remains present, as are contestations of the State authority in some regions, particularly in the west.
SE03. Côte d’Ivoire is a priority country for the UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC). At the end of November 2019, the PBF had invested over USD 55 million since 2008 to support the stabilization and peacebuilding processes in the country. Côte d’Ivoire is also a pilot case for the UN Agenda on peacebuilding and sustaining peace and is often mentioned as an example of a successful transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding.
SE04. The evaluation of the PBF portfolio in Côte d’Ivoire took place from September to December 2019. The scope of the evaluation includes 10 projects listed in Table SE1 out of a total of the 16 projects funded by the PBF up until now as part of the Peacebuilding Priority Plan in Côte d’Ivoire (PP2 2013-2015, extended until 2018) and of the Peacebuilding Support Plan 2017-2019 (PACoP), which aimed at supporting the country through the transition phase from peacekeeping to peacebuilding. These projects are aligned with previous PBF interventions and with the transition of the UN peacekeeping mission in Côte d’Ivoire (ONUCI), which closed in June 2017, with a view to building on peace dividends in the country. The PACoP projects in particular address the outstanding challenges jointly identified by ONUCI, the Government, UNCT and donors.