Côte d'Ivoire is now considered to be in a post-crisis phase but faces a serious gap in the provision of essential services between the phasing out of humanitarian aid and the phasing in of long term development assistance. Continued limited access to basic public services, to land, food and livelihoods resulting from the 2010/2011 post electoral crisis is hindering the re-installation of 550,000 returnees as well as the return and reinstallation of the 80,000 refugees and 180,000 internally displaced persons to their home villages and is negatively impacting on the reconciliation process.
The humanitarian caseload from the Cote d'Ivoire crisis is estimated at nearly 1,000,000 people, including the refugees in neighbouring countries (Liberia, Ghana and Togo).
Sporadic security incidents, delays in the restoration of law and order combined with insufficient access to basic services, mainly in the areas in the west that were most affected by the violence, are holding back economic recovery and are amongst the main factors behind the reluctance of many refugees and IDPs to return to regions of origin.
Continued humanitarian action to ensure access to basic services for the most vulnerable population remains essential until the government and development partners are in a position to take over especially in the health, food security and protection sectors. The dysfunctional state of the health system in western Cote d'Ivoire and peripheral areas around Abidjan remains of particular concern. A legacy of under-investment from previous governments has left many health facilities in poor condition and this was further aggravated during the violence caused by the crisis.
The recent government decision to grant free access to basic health care for children under five and pregnant women has been welcomed by aid organisations but remains insufficiently supported by financial and human resources. The immediate food needs of the most vulnerable populations continue to be partly covered by emergency assistance and programmes of livelihood protection. However, unresolved conflicts related to land ownership issues constitute a major obstacle to access to land and to hopes for increased food production and continue to fuel intra-community tensions. There are also concerns that many of the root causes of the tensions risk not being sufficiently addressed by planned reforms inter alia the new nationality code, implementation of land ownership law, population census, disarmament, demobilisation and re-integration (DDR) and security sector reform (SSR) processes. The potential for continued tensions and violence between communities remains very high.