The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) reached an historic milestone in 2006. For the first time in over 40 years, the people of the DRC cast their ballots and chose a president through democratic elections widely acclaimed as free and fair. A new government will soon be in place and it will face enormous challenges, not the least among them meeting the high expectations of the Congolese people who have suffered through years of war, poverty and neglect. For now, there is hope, as well as a commitment of the Congolese people to improving their lives.
One can observe the positive signs across the country. Most notably, the surrender of a few key rebel leaders and their followers, and marked improvements in the security situation in a number of return areas, have encouraged many Congolese displaced populations and refugees to go home. At the same time, certain parts of the DRC continue to remain volatile. Fighting between militia groups and the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) in the eastern provinces has created displacement – over 500,000 people to abandon their homes in 2006 – and been accompanied by widespread human rights violations including torture, forced labour, rape and summary executions. Women and children tend to suffer most. Despite the marked progress towards recovery, humanitarian needs remain high.
The year 2006 has been an important one for humanitarian actors. The DRC is a pilot country for a number of new coordination and funding tools, including the cluster approach, the Good Humanitarian Donorship (GHD) initiative, the Pooled Fund and the expanded Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF). The DRC 2006 Action Plan was the first of its kind. It brought together the broadest possible group of humanitarian actors, both United Nations (UN) and non governmental organisations (NGOs) alike, within one common humanitarian strategy and regional action plans. Although the plan was instrumental in helping to secure additional funds for humanitarian assistance in 2006, and we applaud the extra efforts of a number of donors to increase their support in line with GHD principles, funding levels continue to fall short of overall requirements.
The Humanitarian Action Plan (HAP) for 2007 is the result of a collaborative effort involving UN agencies, international and national NGOs, Congolese Government officials and donors. The plan is indeed ambitious, and it should be. Humanitarian actors have estimated their funding requirements for 2007 at USD 687 million. Their budgets are based on regional action plans developed by technical experts in the field to target priority humanitarian zones and the vulnerable populations that inhabit them. These regional action plans will support the achievement of agreed objectives and indicators by sector. We must continue to further refine the plans and ensure proper linkages and complementarity between the HAP 2007 and reconstruction and development programs. Only if displaced populations are able to go home and stay home, because they have access to basic services and are able to support themselves, will we begin to break the cycle of crisis in the DRC.
It is important to emphasize that the HAP 2007 is a living document. While it serves to help secure funding for humanitarian action in the DRC, it is intended first and foremost as an implementation and monitoring tool for humanitarian actors in the DRC. It should adapt and evolve in tandem with the humanitarian situation. We welcome the willingness of donors to participate in this evolution and help ensure a common strategy for early recovery. At their suggestion, we intend to establish a technical dialogue along these lines, involving humanitarian, development and government actors.
In order for the HAP 2007 to be gauged a success, humanitarian organizations and donors will need to match the Congolese commitment to improvement and ensure a more predictable, efficient and effective response to humanitarian needs across the country. It certainly will not be easy, and within the humanitarian community we will face our own challenges, but like the new government, we can not afford to let the Congolese people down.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The strategy of the HAP 2007 aims to provide a common framework in order to respond to critical needs stemming from the acute humanitarian crises that arise when populations are threatened by conflict, natural disasters and epidemics. Furthermore, it seeks to support the return towards self-sufficiency for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees who have voluntarily decided to go back to their communities of origin.
In 2006, localised armed conflicts created numerous population displacements in certain zones of the east of the country (Ituri, the Kivus and Katanga). During the first half of 2006, an average of 88,000 persons per month were newly displaced and assisted by the Rapid Response Mechanism, a 140% increase versus the same period in 2005. Despite the persistence of zones of conflict and pockets of insecurity, the total number of displaced persons in the DRC nonetheless fell by 33% since 2005. According to the latest estimates from the field, there are currently 1.1 million displaced persons.
The 2007 Plan has two goals: to save lives by providing assistance to victims of various crises, and to provide assistance and support for basic and essential primary services, allowing returning populations and their host communities to gradually rebuild normal lives while ensuring them a means of subsistence.
This second goal will also allow for the beginning of a transition between humanitarian and development interventions in stable areas of return. This transition will be facilitated in 2007 by the implementation of the Country Assistance Framework (CAF) which will intervene in all of the sectors covered in the HAP 2007 plus that of good governance. It will be essential to put in place a mechanism of continuous monitoring in order to avoid any duplication of activities in the sectors and regions concerned.
This document presents the common humanitarian strategy for the country, created on the basis of regional scenarios and their humanitarian consequences. Regional action plans that integrate several sectors of intervention were derived from this strategy in order to bring an appropriate and comprehensive response to regional issues, including actions coordinated with the entire humanitarian community in the DRC.
The budget of the HAP 2007 is close to 686,591,107million USD, roughly the same level as in 2006. Nonetheless, it is important to note two important differences between the two Plans:
1) the portion of the budget dedicated to the first line of action that consists of "Saving lives" has risen from 28% in 2006 to 46% in 2007 and;
2) the majority of the 2007 budget (68%) is directed towards the east of the country, where one finds both the areas of conflict and the areas of return.
LIST OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 2006 IN RETROSPECT
- 1.1.1 From the Consolidated Appeal 2005 to the DRC 2006 Action Plan
- 1.1.2 The DRC is emerging from crisis and is moving towards a certain stability
- 1.1.3 Population movement: internally displaced persons and returnees
- 18.104.22.168 New Displacements
- 22.214.171.124 Repatriation of refugees
- 1.1.4 The humanitarian situation
1.2. Major humanitarian crises of 2006
- 1.2.1 Ituri
- 1.2.2 North Kivu
- 1.2.3 South Kivu
- 1.2.4 Katanga
1.3 Establishment and functioning of the cluster mechanism
- 1.3.1 Sharing of responsibility
- 1.3.2 Functioning of the cluster approach in the DRC
- 1.3.3 The value added by clusters
- 1.3.4 Sectoral Commissions
1.4. Results and principal constraints by sector
- 1.4.1 Emergency Shelter and Non-Food Items
- 1.4.2 Education
- 1.4.3 Water and Sanitation
- 1.4.4 Logistics
- 1.4.5 Nutrition
- 1.4.6 Protection
- 1.4.7 Health
- 1.4.8 Food security
- 1.4.9 Early recovery
- 1.4.10 Emergency Telecommunications
- 1.4.11 The Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM)
1.5. Financing of the Humanitarian Action Plan 2006
- 1.5.1 Analysis of funding received for the Action Plan 2006
- 1.5.2 Funding by sector
- 1.5.3 Use of flexible funds (Pooled Fund / CERF)
- 1.5.4 Financial tracking of contributions
- 1.5.5 Funding mechanisms: the Pooled Fund and the CERF
126.96.36.199 .Pooled Fund
188.8.131.52 .Central Emergency Response Fund
1.6. Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative
CHAPTER 2 COMMON HUMANITARIAN STRATEGY 2007
2.2. The most likely scenario and its humanitarian consequences
- 2.2.1 The most likely scenario
- 2.2.2 Humanitarian Consequences
2.3 Humanitarian goals
2.4 The link between the Humanitarian Action Plan 2007 and the Country Assistance Framework (CAF)
CHAPTER 3 NATIONAL STRATEGIES: NARRATIVES AND STRATEGIC TABLES BY SECTOR
- 3.1.1 Emergency Shelter and Non-Food Items
- 3.1.2 Water and Sanitation
- 3.1.3 Education
- 3.1.4 Logistics
- 3.1.5 Nutrition
- 3.1.6 Protection
- 3.1.7 Health
- 3.1.8 Food security
- 3.1.9 Early recovery
- 3.1.10 Emergency Telecommunications
3.2. Strategic Tables
CHAPTER 4 COORDINATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION
4.1. Coordination Tools in 2007
- 4.1.1 Two coordination tools where OCHA has no presence in the field: MONUC-CAS and UNDP
- 4.1.2 Other coordination mechanisms
4.2. Implementation of the 2007 Humanitarian Action Plan
- 4.2.1 OCHA support to the Humanitarian Coordinator
- 4.2.2 Monitoring mechanisms
184.108.40.206 Monitoring of the attainment of national objectives
220.127.116.11 Provincial monitoring at the level of the clusters and sectoral commissions
18.104.22.168 Monitoring at the project level
Annex I: Summary of Requirement by Goals, Province and by Sector
Annex 2: IFRC 2007 Funding appeal
Note: The full text of this appeal is available on-line in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format.
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