Nearly 200,000 people in Bugabira, Kirundo and Busoni communes (Kirundo province) are in need of assistance following below average rainfall during the September-December 2021 rainy season. Poor rainfall has resulted in loss of at least 90% of legume crops and 70% of cereal crops. Livelihoods were severely affected, since 98% of the population of Kirundo province practise farming as their main livelihood. People are coping by eating one meal a day, selling productive assets like land and livestock, and taking children out of school to save on school fees and putting them to work to help feed their families. The elderly, people with disabilities, and children are particularly vulnerable due to relocation of their family members in search of food and work opportunities. The affected people need food and livelihood assistance, including seeds, farming tools, and agricultural training, as well as food and nutritional care to address malnutrition.
Since April 2021, at least 25 civilians have died and 31 were injured in incidents involving explosive devices planted by armed groups. The latest incident was on 3 March, when a truck rented by a humanitarian organisation to transport materials for the construction of a school hit an explosive device on the Bozoum -- Bocaranga route (Ouham Pende). The presence of explosive devices has significantly reduced humanitarian access in Mambéré-Kadéï and Ouham-Pendé prefectures, contributing to a 34% increase in the number of people in need of assistance in each of these prefectures from 2021 to 2022. Movement limitations in the northwest and west of the country as a result of explosive contamination are forcing humanitarian organisations to temporarily suspend their activities, leaving IDPs of Bouar (Nana-Mambéré), Paoua, and Bocaranga (Ouham-Pendé) areas without assistance. The presence of explosive devices limits people's access to fields and other livelihoods, as well as to healthcare and education.
An escalation in clashes between SPLA-IO and armed youth in Koch, Mayendit, and Leer counties (Unity state) beginning in mid-February has led to the displacement of 39,000 people. Several people have been injured or killed. At least nine women are reported to have been sexually assaulted. Personal property was destroyed and humanitarian supplies were looted in the violence. The displaced people took refuge in Leer town (Leer county), where they need shelter, food, and drinking water. The population of Unity state was affected by severe flooding in 2021 and they continue to have a wide range of unmet needs. Humanitarian response in Unity state faces increased access constraints because of incidents of looting and attacks against aid workers, which has led to the relocation and temporary suspension of some humanitarian operations.