Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP)
The CAP is much more than an appeal for money. It is an inclusive and coordinated programme cycle of:
a) strategic planning leading to a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP);
b) resource mobilisation (leading to a Consolidated Appeal or a Flash Appeal);
c) coordinated programme implementation;
d) joint monitoring and evaluation;
e) revision, if necessary; and
f) reporting on results.
The CHAP is a strategic plan for humanitarian response in a given country or region and includes the following elements:
a) A common analysis of the context in which humanitarian action takes place;
b) An assessment of needs;
c) best, worst, and most likely scenarios;
d) Stakeholder analysis, i.e. who does what and where;
e) A clear statement of longer-term objectives and goals;
f) Prioritised response plans; and
g) A framework for monitoring the strategy and revising it if necessary.
The CHAP is the foundation for developing a Consolidated Appeal or, when crises break or natural disasters occur, a Flash Appeal. The CHAP can also serve as a reference for organisations deciding not to appeal for funds through a common framework. Under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, the CHAP is developed at the field level by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Country Team. This team mirrors the IASC structure at headquarters and includes UN agencies, and standing invitees, i.e. the International Organization for Migration, the Red Cross Movement, and NGOs that belong to ICVA, Interaction, or SCHR. Non-IASC members, such as national NGOs, can be included, and other key stakeholders in humanitarian action, in particular host governments and donors, should be consulted.
The Humanitarian Coordinator is responsible for the annual preparation of the consolidated appeal document. The document is launched globally each November to enhance advocacy and resource mobilisation. An update, known as the Mid-Year Review, is presented to donors in June of each year.
Donors provide resources to appealing agencies directly in response to project proposals. The Financial Tracking Service (FTS), managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a database of donor contributions and can be found on www.reliefweb.int/fts
In sum, the CAP is about how the aid community collaborates to provide civilians in need the best protection and assistance available, on time.
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Mid-Year Review of the 2005 CAP for Burundi focuses on summarising adjustments of specific humanitarian actions to be carried out on the basis of assessments, evaluations, and progress of implementation of activities in the first six months of 2005.
The strategy and objectives described in the 2005 CHAP, summarised below, remain unchanged to address key humanitarian needs in Burundi.
- Protection of civilians affected by ongoing-armed conflict, insecurity and displacement;
- Access to basic services for all groups of the population on an equal basis and enhancing the quality of basic service provision especially in health/nutrition and education;
- Food security defined in terms of access to, and availability of, adequate food intake at the household level so as to ensure healthy physical and mental development.
Overall improvement in security conditions and the general progress of the political transition process are important factors contributing to a gradual stabilisation of the population in Burundi. Nevertheless, the long-term consequences of the crisis in the country continue to require a systematic combination of responses ranging from life-saving activities, to strengthened community-based reconstruction initiatives, to supporting population reintegration in the short-term.
As of 10 June, estimated funding of the 2005 CAP for Burundi amounted to US$ 39,691,291, which represents approximately 33% of revised requested funding to date. The total funding requirements of the 2005 CAP Mid-year Review amount to US$ 121,421,099. In addition, food aid requirements for Burundi, included in the Great Lakes 2005 CAP Mid-year Review amount to US$ 23,420,796.
2. CHANGES IN THE CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN NEEDS
2.1. THE PEACE PROCESS AND POLITICAL TRANSITION IN BURUNDI
The first six months of 2005 have witnessed progress in the peace process and political transition in Burundi. Despite considerable delays in the original electoral schedule, the constitutional referendum held in late February took place in a calm environment with over 92% of voters turning out to vote countrywide. With the support of regional government facilitators and the UN peacekeeping mission in Burundi (ONUB), the mandate of the Transitional Government was extended and a new electoral calendar agreed upon in March 2005. As a result, the electoral process, which started in early June, will culminate with the presidential elections planned for 19 August and the subsequent transfer of power to the elected government before end of August 2005.
In February was held the referendum for the approval of the new national constitution, which includes the power-sharing mechanisms agreed upon by Burundian political parties. The constitution was overwhelmingly endorsed by 90% of registered voters. Communal elections took place in early June. The process was completed without disruption and in a general calm environment in most of the Burundian provinces with the exception of violent incidents in the provinces of Bujumbura rural and Bubanza, which led to the closure of polling stations and the reorganisation of elections in some communes. The communal elections were the basis for the election process in the country, which includes legislative and presidential elections planned for the period July-August 2005.
A second important step towards the stabilisation of the country was the agreement on cessation of hostilities between the Burundian Transitional Government and the Forces Nationales de Libération (FNL) reached in May 2005 during negotiations between the Burundian President and Agathon Rwasa, the leader of FNL, with the facilitation of the ONUB and the Regional Initiative. The agreement provides for the establishment of joint government and FNL teams which should prepare towards a global ceasefire agreement in the coming months. Following a decline in the scope of armed clashes in the first months of the year, the agreement between the parties in conflict has led to the partial improvement of security conditions in Bujumbura rural. However, treatment of civilian populations and their protection remain main humanitarian concerns in the areas still affected by insecurity and until and effective ceasefire agreement is reached and implemented.
The demobilisation of combatants, which had faced considerable delays in 2004, advanced in the first six months of 2005. In the context of the National Programme for Demobilisation, Disarmament and Reintegration (DDR) a total of 10,864 combatants had been demobilised by late May 2005 while approximately 7,300 ex-combatants had returned to their communities of origin. Pending issues related to army integration were resolved following the Government decree on rank harmonisation approved in May. A total of 9,240 members of former rebel groups joined the Forces de Défense Nationales (FDN), the newly integrated army of Burundi, during the reporting period and as part of the security sector reform programme, supported by bilateral donors and ONUB. In the area of civilian disarmament and small arms, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and ONUB started the planning of a national programme strategy in consultation with government counterparts. A Technical Advisor on Small Arms and Armed Violence Reduction will be recruited by UNDP end of June 2005.
2.2. HUMANITARIAN PRIORITIES AND THE TRANSITION FROM RELIEF TO DEVELOPMENT
For the implementation of the commonly agreed humanitarian strategy, United Nations (UN) agencies, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and donors have focused on systematic needs assessments, review of vulnerability and targeting criteria by groups of population and geographical regions. These efforts allowed for the adjustment of selected actions in accordance with Burundians' rapidly evolving needs in a mixed context of acute population fragility and post-emergency needs. Community-based assessments, national surveys and special studies carried out by humanitarian organisations have followed the project on a Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response (SPHERE) Standards and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Needs Analysis Framework. Response plans also incorporated the scenarios and key actions included in the Joint Contingency Plan updated in February 2005.
Household food security and emergency agriculture support, refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) return and reintegration have been the focus of humanitarian actions in the past six months.
Cycles of drought periods, loss of staple crops, poor yields during three consecutive agriculture seasons and fragile nutritional conditions were particularly important in the northern Burundian provinces, which were also affected by waves of population movements both internal and across the border into Rwanda. To address these issues, UN Agencies and partner NGOs established a six-month rapid response set of actions with the objective of containing deteriorating household food security and nutritional conditions in selected communes of the Northern provinces. Disease outbreaks and epidemics, most notably malaria and cholera in some areas in the country, also required strengthening emergency actions to support both early warning and rapid response systems managed by the Ministry of Health (MOH)
Population displacement due to insecurity and armed conflict reduced markedly in the first months of the year and as compared to the period 2003-2004. Populations in the province of Bujumbura rural, where recurrent waves of displacement had taken place throughout 2004, are gradually resettling and returning to zones of origin and no sizeable population movements were registered in the first semester of the year. Nevertheless, treatment of civilians by parties to the conflict in the province, protection and widespread human rights violations have remained main areas of concern.
In the area of reconstruction and development, the preparation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Programme (PRSP) also made considerable progress during the reporting period. Key discussions have been carried out with the Transitional Government, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in order to assist the Government of Burundi in the preparation of its presentation for debt relief for consideration to the IMF and World Bank boards in the coming months. The PRSP process is in its final stages of completion also for presentation to the Bank board before the end of the year. While the interim reviews conducted by IMF and Bank teams in April-May indicate reasonable progress of macroeconomic reforms defined in the 2002 interim reform programme, the considerable burden of the external debt and the persistent levels of extreme poverty remain main areas of concern.
UNDP intends to contribute its share to rehabilitation of war affected people and poverty reduction through a new programme that has been finalised in the first half of 2005. This programme comprises the following actions: (i) capacity building for national institutions in charge of reintegration; (ii) construction and rehabilitation of social infrastructures and habitat in collaboration with the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT); (iii) diversification of agricultural productions, (iv) support for local economic development; and (v) research and pilot testing of alternatives in the field of land management. The programme will follow a community-based approach in order to ensure equity between the returnees and the local population.
The implementation of the 2005-2007 United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) also started in the first months of the year with the establishment of inter-agency thematic groups in the priority areas identified in UNDAF, namely (a) peace and reconciliation/good governance, (b) rehabilitation of basic services, (c) poverty reduction, environment and agriculture, and (d) Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). ONUB technical teams also participate in the thematic groups focusing on the development of sectoral strategies and joint programming. The establishment of strategy and programme linkages to ensure the transition from emergency/relief to reconstruction/development is one of the main areas of focus of the UNDAF thematic groups. On the basis of key findings and joint analyses, the humanitarian strategy for Burundi includes a combination of responses ranging from immediate life-saving activities to strengthened community-based actions to support population reinsertion and reintegration in the short term.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
2. CHANGES IN THE CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN NEEDS
2.1. The Peace Process and Political Transition in Burundi
2.2. Humanitarian Priorities and the Transition from Relief to Development
3. REVIEW OF THE COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN
3.1. Household Food Security, Emergency Agriculture and Nutrition
3.2. Access to Basic Services
3.3. Population Return and Movements, Community Reinsertion and Reintegration
- 3.3.1. Refugee Returns
- 3.3.2. Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)
- 3.3.3. Internal and Cross-border Population Movements
- 3.3.4. Mine Action
3.4. Information Management and Analysis: Joint Initiatives
4. FUNDING AND PROJECTS
- Summary of Revised Projects - 2005 CAP MYR - Burundi (In US$)
ANNEX I. TABLE I. SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS BY APPEALING ORGANISATION AND BY SECTOR
ANNEX II. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
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