THE SECRETARY-GENERAL FOREWORD TO THE HUMANITARIAN APPEAL 2006
The past year has been a wretched one for millions of disaster victims. It dawned with the Indian Ocean tsunami, saw a hurricane season unrivalled in living memory strike the Americas, and included South Asia’s devastating earthquake. Through it all, other tragic crises persisted in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Like never before, the year stretched and tested the capabilities of aid agencies, and the will of survivors.
This Humanitarian Appeal seeks $ 4.7 billion in urgent support for 31 million people worldwide. The Appeal covers 26 countries and comes to roughly $ 150 per person, a relatively small amount where lives hang in the balance.
The Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) is the international community’s most important tool for raising resources for humanitarian action. By bringing together relief agencies, the CAP avoids competing appeals, and provides a unified framework for a strategic and inclusive response. It is designed not only to alleviate immediate suffering, but also to identify and address longer-term needs. This year, for the first time, every Consolidated Appeal includes projects to be undertaken by non-governmental organizations as well as UN agency initiatives.
United Nations Member States must necessarily take the lead in responding to the Appeal. But the private sector, and every concerned citizen, should contribute. The many high-profile disasters of the past year mobilized great numbers of individuals across the world. Their support brought food to the hungry, medical assistance to the sick and shelter to displaced populations. I hope that all such individuals remain engaged in humanitarian efforts and continue donating generously.
I call on the international community to support this year’s Appeal, and to do so with a sense of urgency. Historically, only one-tenth of Consolidated Appeals have been funded in the first quarter of each year. Yet early funding enables aid agencies to start programs on schedule, ensuring timely and dependable assistance. As untended humanitarian crises inevitably worsen, delayed giving costs more in lives and in resources.
To encourage early giving, UN Member States are being invited to Geneva on 10 January 2006. The gathering will be an opportunity for donors to lay out their priorities and funding goals for the year. It will also allow aid agencies to elaborate on pressing needs, and to seek immediately needed commitments.
We must ensure that all people in crisis – regardless of nationality, gender or belief – receive adequate aid or support. Together, we can save lives and make a difference. It is in this spirit that I ask you to generously support Humanitarian Appeal 2006.
Koffi A. Annan
This year has been a year like no other for humanitarian action, bracketed by devastating disasters – the Indian Ocean tsunami in the final days of 2004 and the South Asia earthquake of October 2005, on top of the worst hurricane season in living memory – and stretching all humanitarian agencies to their maximum capacity and beyond. Funding, led by private donations for the tsunami, reached unprecedented worldwide totals – but because the majority of funds were earmarked for the tsunami, most agencies and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) still lacked sufficient funding to assist millions of people struck by other crises. Victims of conflict saw improvements in some regions, while other conflicts intensified, worsening the human cost. Angola, emerging from a war that stretched back to the 1970s, had its first year since 1993 without a consolidated appeal. Formerly warring parties in Sudan signed a peace accord and entered a period of reconciliation, return and reintegration of refugees and displaced people, and recovery – while a separate conflict in Sudan’s Darfur region deteriorated again and continues to be one of the world’s most serious crises. Effects of the insurgency in Nepal worsened, leading to that country’s first consolidated appeal. In the midst of this year, a broad-ranging review of humanitarian action laid down blueprints for improved coordination and response. Humanitarian action continues to become more effective, professional, and efficient. The rationale for consolidated appeals remains straightforward and relevant: to avoid competing and overlapping appeals, and to provide a framework for strategic, coordinated, and inclusive programming. All Consolidated Appeals comprise strategic action plans and specific project proposals by both NGOs and UN agencies.
For 2006, 18 programmes require a total of $ 4.7 billion to ensure that 31 million people in 26 countries get the best available protection and assistance, on time. In addition to new requirements for 2006, some $ 766 million is still required for five flash appeals issued in 2005 and which extend into the coming year.
This may seem like a lot of money – but in fact, it’s the same as asking each person in the world’s wealthy countries to donate the cost of two cups of coffee.
EXAMPLES OF KEY ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN 2005
What are consolidated appeals, and what is done with the funding that agencies in them receive? In essence appeals are a snapshot of the aid community’s efforts to work together on context analysis, needs assessment, prioritisation, planning and coordinated programme implementation. The examples highlighted below illustrate the variety of specialised actions that comprise the Consolidated Appeals Process’ strategic
Burundi (48% funded)
Food aid (78% funded): Distribution of 45,800 metric tonnes (MT) of food throughout the country, reaching 1.3 million people (12,500 MTs to vulnerable households through targeted distributions, 3,000 MTs allocated to the 220 nutritional centres in Burundi, 6,000 MTs to people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable groups in social centres, 1,000 MTs to refugee families, and 2,000 MTs to Burundian returning refugees from Tanzania and Rwanda); more than 21,300 MTs also distributed through recovery activities, such as the seed-protection ration programme, food-for-work/training activities, Disarmament-Demobilisation-Reintegration (DDR), and school feeding.
Agriculture (57% funded): Distribution of seeds and agricultural tools to 625,000 households; expanded recovery activities targeting specific vulnerabilities of approximately 40,000 households with reduced land access, Batwa minority communities, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and the chronically ill; distribution of 26,800,000 sweet potato cuttings and plants for improved crop and seed multiplication in regions affected by drought and crop pest; support to IDP and refugee reinsertion including distribution of 210,000 fruit plants and recovery of 400 hectares of swamps, benefiting 42,000 households.
Health (12% funded): Distribution of 378 essential drug kits, covering an estimated 567,000 consultations; 150 health emergency kits, covering an estimated 1,500,000 patients; 1,250 trauma kits and 2,500 replenishment kits; 900 basic surgery kits; 40 midwife drugs and equipment kits and 10 obstetrical surgery kits. Training and supervision: refresher training for 395 nurses and 77 health centre managers; availability of staff management and supervision tools at 178 centres, drug stock management at 185 centres and health centre audit at 107 centres. Number of HIV/AIDS test and treatment centres expanded from 89 in 2002 to 115 in 2004; rise in the number of tested people from 30,412 in 2002 to 71,730 in 2004.
Multi-sector (21% funded): Over 60,000 refugees repatriated to Burundi from Tanzania, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); number of IDPs living in sites for the displaced has decreased from 145,000 in 170 sites in 2004 to 117,000 in 160 sites countrywide in 2005.
Central African Republic (31% funded)
Health & nutrition (22% funded): Halt of transmission of wild polio virus; national immunisation campaigns against measles carried out to protect children 6 months to 14 years of age.
HIV/AIDS (39% funded): Services for Prevention of Parent-Child Transmission and the Counsel for Voluntary Testing made operational in Bangui and in the former conflict zones, with the opening of five new testing centres.
Water and sanitation (33% funded): Rehabilitation of 324 pumps in Nana Grébizi and Ouham, with re-activation of community water point committees; provision of hygiene materials to schools; training of teachers and student-parent associations.
Education (1% funded): Distribution of 5,000 new school desks as partial replacement for the 55,000 destroyed in the conflict in 2002–2003 (bringing the total replaced to 10,300); distribution of pedagogic material in the form of school kits for about 154,000 students and 2,500 teachers in the former conflict zones; rehabilitation of 11 school buildings, giving educational access to more than 2,500 students in these zones.
Protection (0% funded): 800 victims of rape and sexual violence received psycho-social support and aid for income-generating activities.
Food aid & food security (31% funded): 469 tonnes of food provided under the World Food Programme’s (WFP) food-for-work and food-for-training programmes for 2,359 households; 56 training sessions performed on themes of hygiene and prevention of HIV for 80,000 beneficiaries; 102,000 displaced or returning persons received food to facilitate their return to zone of origin; 27,737 vulnerable people (including 5,548 people with AIDS and their family members) received food aid; 5,494 orphans and seniors received food aid.
Flood assistance: Provision of 75,000 litres of water per day for 60 days; distribution of 10,000 jerry cans; sanitary education; pre-positioning of medical supplies to ensure urgent care for 10,000 people for three months, with distribution of anti-malarials for 1,000 people; provision of food (therapeutic biscuits "BP5") and kerosene lamps.
Demobilisation and reintegration: 5,447 ex-combatants registered, with 894 disarmed and demobilised (including 282 women); 692 ex-combatants reintegrated into communities.
Multi-sectoral assistance to refugees (100% funded): Repatriation of 1,374 Chadian refugees and 3,000 Democratic Republic of the Congo refugees.
Chad (54% funded)
Coordination and support services (18% funded): Sector working groups in place in Abéché and specific groups discussing assistance to Chadian host communities; working groups set up in N’Djaména.
Education (28% funded): School classrooms built in 10 of the 12 camps, and tents and other structures put in place in the remaining camps; teachers in all camps received training; schoolbooks and materials provided to all schools; 40 pre-school teachers trained in each camp; enrolment of over 46,000 students at primary level alone; summer school activities organised in each camp.
Environment: System of organised collection of firewood put in place in several camps in the east; Introduction of fuel-efficient stoves.
Food (52% funded): Provision of food to 193,300 refugees in eastern Chad; food-for-work activities supporting local populations (4,800 households and a seed protection programme supporting another 4,000 families).
Health (31% funded): Set-up of an early warning system for 193,300 refugees and 700,000 Chadians; set-up of a nutritional surveillance system for 193,300 refugees; meningitis mass immunisation campaigns for both refugees and local population – 58,139 people vaccinated; better health coordination in place.
Multi-sector (79% funded): Protection and assistance to some 200,000 refugees in the east; Implementation of small-scale Quick Impact Projects (QIPs) for host communities in the east.
Water and Sanitation (9% funded): Assistance to some 200,000 refugees in eastern Chad with the provision of safe water (12.6 litres/person/day) and sanitation (average: 33 persons/latrine); assisted some 55,000 members of host communities through emergency hepatitis-E response.
Côte d'Ivoire (41% funded)
Food (100% funded): Food and nutritional assistance provided to 700,675 recipients including vulnerable farmers during the lean season, IDPs in reception camps, returnees, refugees, women, and children in nutrition centres and HIV patients; nearly 540,000 primary school children received food rations under the emergency school feeding programme (helping to keep children in schools, especially in areas under the control of the Forces Nouvelles).
Agriculture (56% funded): 150,000 people in the north, centre and west received seeds, fertilisers, and hand tools.
Water and sanitation (5% funded): Supplying chemical treatment products to the water supply company so that more than 1.5 million people have access to safe water.
Refugee care (72% funded): By the end of 2005, an estimated 16,000 of the 36,000 refugees will have voluntarily returned to Liberia; 6,500 Liberian refugees were resettled in the United States.
Health (6% funded): Essential drugs and materials were delivered to most functional health facilities (497 out of the existing 578); 158 of these health facilities have been rehabilitated and are waiting for qualified personnel to improve the population's access to basic care; organisation of national immunisation days throughout the country, with 99.9% of children between 0–5 years old vaccinated against poliomyelitis and 87.7% (i.e. 7.8 million children) between 9 months and 14 years old vaccinated against measles; response to meningitis epidemic in Bouna (19% mortality rate) where 55,214 out of 209,500 were vaccinated.
Education (13% funded): Shortfall of accredited teachers (a total of 3,262) was partially made up by 2,891 voluntary teachers; supply of school and teaching materials to a few schools.
Protection & rule of law (3% funded): Effective proximity communication and promotion of peace (ONUCI FM radio programmes, consultations with local humanitarian agencies, elected officers and community leaders).
Great Lakes Region (77% funded)
Coordination and liaison (71% funded): Inter-agency working groups; inter-agency collaboration; internal coordination; joint assessments and planning.
Advocacy: Advocating for life saving assistance; advocacy on behalf of refugees, returnees, IDPs and host communities. Thematic advocacy issues: HIV/AIDS, sexual and gender based violence, violations of children's rights.
Emergency response capacity and direct assistance: Direct assistance – WFP's regional PRRO continued to provide assistance to refugees and other vulnerable populations in the region with beneficiary numbers in the last quarter of 2005 in the region of 1.8 million people. Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) regional HIV/AIDS mitigation project is ongoing with activities in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. UNHCR also continued to provide assistance for refugees and returnees throughout the region. The agency provided non-food items, education opportunities, and, where possible, facilitated resettlement of refugees from particularly insecure environments. Other assistance: Surge capacity and backstopping; technical support; resource mobilisation; training (support to the development of response plans).
Emergency preparedness, monitoring, and evaluation: Emergency preparedness; early warning;
Guinea (51% funded)
Protection (37% funded): 60 separated refugee children reunited with their families in Sierra Leone; voluntary repatriation of 18,000 Liberian refugees; remaining caseload of 2,060 Sierra Leonean refugees in Boreah camp continued to receive relief assistance and protection in preparation for their local integration.
Health (18% funded): Yellow fever control and poliomyelitis immunisation carried out as the second round of the polio vaccination campaign launched in April 2005, reaching a global coverage of 111%; efforts made to lower malnutrition, morbidity, and mortality rates through targeted programmes in water and sanitation, nutrition, and mother and child health care; eight-month supply of essential drugs provided to 36 health centres in Beyla, Lola, N'Zerekore, and Yomou prefectures in the last quarter of 2005; support for disease surveillance among the refugees and host communities.
Water and sanitation (0% funded): Macenta and N'Zerekore prefectures benefited from the establishment of 500 latrines; 1,255 water pumps were made operational during 2005, benefiting approximately 610,000 persons; 20 water points constructed in Guinea Forestière.
Food aid and agriculture (64% funded): Food aid continued to be provided to moderately and severely malnourished children, their mothers, and HIV/AIDS victims; provision of agricultural inputs and technical assistance in Guinea Forestière to improve coping mechanisms and food security among 10,000 returnee households from Côte d'Ivoire, Sierra Leonean refugees, and host communities; school vegetable gardens received seeds and tools to increase self-reliance of school feeding programmes; income-generating projects helped a total of 20,000 IDPs, returnees, and host communities to increase their food security and coping mechanisms. (In spite of carefully planned emergency agriculture response, food security has not improved.)
Education (0% funded): Host families constructed additional classrooms using local material to reduce the average class size down from 124 pupils.
occupied Palestinian territory (59% funded)
Response to specific acute crisis areas and vulnerabilities has been achieved in particular in health with the coverage of basic needs (immunisation, control of communicable diseases) and delivery of services. In psychosocial support, only two objectives were fulfilled: setting up an emergency preparedness and response system and setting up child friendly spaces in emergency situations. In education, services to the 16–18 year old target group have been neglected due to lack of attention and funding. Regular food assistance has contributed to supporting the most food insecure sector of the non-refugee population, reducing further impoverishment and the tendency to resort to negative coping mechanisms. The effect of pursuing the CAP goals and priorities has been, as expected, the reduction of poverty, the possibility given to the beneficiaries to restart their activities, improved availability and access to fresh produce, and an improvement of their diet.
Mitigation of negative effects of fragmentation in health through mobile clinics and in psychosocial support through twelve mobile teams providing support to 25,000 children and 15,000 care givers. In addition, 29 "safe play" areas have now been set up reaching 90,000 children and adolescents. Programmes including support to employment and cash assistance have contributed to maintaining economic and infrastructure activities. Some programmes, when completed, will have generated a total of approximately 25,000 workdays and others contributed to the creation of over one million workdays through direct and indirect hire. Cash assistance was particularly appropriate for those families (around 11,000 vulnerable families, i.e. 82,000 people) unable to sustain participation in even short-term employment programmes.
Awareness and advocacy on protection issues particularly proactive in health, especially mental health. In psychosocial support, a need is felt to advocate for most vulnerable groups, such as examining the impact of closures, conflict and the barrier on women's physical and mental health, and the difficulties women face in accessing health, agricultural land, education, and workplace; to improve targeting the emergency needs of acute crisis areas. Coordination efforts led to disseminating further information of facts on the ground and serving various planning and decision-making processes.
To improve sector coordination, indicators, monitoring, and surveillance systems in health and to build on targeting psycho-social support to children to reach other vulnerable groups.
Building partnerships: Gender is being mainstreamed with local partners and sex-disaggregated data are routinely collected.
Republic of Congo (50% funded)
Health (1% funded): Support for surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis for polio eradication; support for sero-surveillance of HIV; support to Kinkala HIV monitoring post and laboratory for reference hospital; launch of project for community distribution of Ivermectin (anti-parasitic); launch of programme against Buruli ulcer.
Water and sanitation (87% funded): Provision for all targeted school, health centres and markets of wells with handpumps and san-plat latrines; installation of mini-rain-catchment systems in several target localities; promotion of improved water points and establishment of community water point management committees; training of water point maintenance workers.
Food security (64% funded): Support for rehabilitation of socio-economic infrastructures (schools, health centres, agricultural roads) and re-launch of agricultural activities through food-for-work; school canteens in primary and preschools; nutritional treatment for HIV/AIDS patients; medical follow-up through ambulatory treatment centres; support to DDR through income-generating activities.
Agriculture: No funding.
Protection (100% funded): Psychosocial treatment of affected people; consultation and treatment of post-conflict trauma for 200 children and women in Mindouli; promotion of birth registration; 4,111 children retroactively registered; dissemination of principles on protection of displaced people and refugees for civil society, governmental and non-governmental partners; reintegration of child soldiers (limited by insecurity in the Pool region); promotion for social reintegration of young mothers; registration of 58,000 foreign refugees in the Congo.
Education (13% funded): Order of school kits, crayons and school bags for 15,000 pupils; training of teachers; rehabilitation of school buildings.
Economic recovery: No funding.
Shelter & NFI: No funding.
Somalia (46% funded)
Multi-sector refugee care (76% funded): In 2005, 6,866 Somali refugees returned to Somalia with UNHCR assistance, bringing the total number of returnees since the early 1990s to some 1.2 million (majority returned spontaneously; nearly 500,000 assisted by UNHCR).
HIV/AIDS: Somaliland AIDS Commission launched; HIV test kits for Voluntary Confidential Counselling Testing services distributed in hospitals; health workers trained on voluntary counselling and testing; peer education initiatives begun in primary and secondary schools in Somaliland; 50 patients commenced antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Somaliland and capacity building to scale up is underway.
Food security and livelihoods (56% funded): Assistance in rebuilding the fisheries sector in tsunami-affected communities, and to drought-stricken pastoralist communities in Sool and Sanag plateau; support to riverine communities affected by floods in Juba Valley; nearly 1.2 million people benefited from food aid distributions in 2005 targeting schools attended by children from returnees, IDPs, and other vulnerable communities, allowing 9,050 underprivileged children to go to school.
Health (25% funded): 15,000 children vaccinated through the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) accelerated multi-antigen campaign; provided mobile clinic services that benefited 14,000 people in drought-affected Sool/Sanaag (Bari, Nugal, and Togdeer regions); supported nine supplementary feeding programmes and established four therapeutic feeding centres to treat 11,000 malnourished children in south and central zones; outbreak preparedness and response plans put in place including pre-positioning of supplies in all three zones; epidemiological weekly surveillance system refined and improved; 22 participants in all three zones trained on three-month course on community-based mental health services.
Water and sanitation (53% funded): Improved access to safe drinking water provided to approximately 120,000 people throughout the country; 500 latrine slabs provided to marginalised communities in south and central zones; hygiene awareness campaigns launched in Bossaso IDP camps and capacity building of community water and sanitation committees through training of committee members in three targeted locations.
Education (34% funded): Increased primary school enrolment by 63,000 children; construction of four classroom blocks complete with water and sanitation facilities in Somaliland and Puntland; construction of seven school buildings in the tsunami-hit area of Hafun; provision of 186 tents to serve as temporary classrooms for 15,000 pupils; training of 1,500 primary school teachers and support for the increasing involvement of Somali women in local NGOs assisting with education programme delivery.
Protection (18% funded): IDP working groups in Somaliland and Puntland established that provided guidance on provision of accelerated humanitarian assistance and implementation of longer-term approaches to IDP resettlement; working groups developed strategic plans and are addressing the issue of resettlement with host communities in Garowe, Hargeisa, and Jowhar; Joint Strategic Framework on IDPs finalised and will become an "implementation tool" for other longer-term development initiatives.
Uganda (65% funded)
Agriculture (51% funded): Over 90% of IDP and resettling households with access to land (220,000 households) received agricultural inputs for at least one acre of land.
Education (34% funded): Establishment of 123 community-based Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres in IDP camps in Gulu, Kitgum, Lira, and Pader districts, catering for approximately 20,730 children (1–8 years old); installation of water facilities (boreholes and water tanks) and 545 mobilets in 51 learning centres in Gulu, Katakwi and Pader, targeting about 25,000 children (51% girls), and the expansion of the Girls' Education Movement (GEM) to 61 schools in the learning centres of Apac, Kitgum, Lira, and Pader; 1,856 teachers and tutors in Gulu, Kaberamaido, Katakwi, Kitgum, and Lira trained in integrated psychosocial education.
Shelter and non-food items (95% funded): Approximately 90% of IDPs have received a standard general household item distribution within the last 18 months.
Food aid (66% funded): Planned Beneficiaries Actual Beneficiaries (January-June 2005)
|General food distribution||
Health and nutrition (30% funded): In Karamoja sub-region and Gulu, Kitgum, and Pader districts, Global Acute Malnutrition Rate (GAM) stands at 18.7% for Karamoja, between 6.2–10.2% for Gulu, 11.8–15% for Kitgum, and 5–10% for Pader; figures reflect general improvement in population's nutritional status, attributed to increased access to humanitarian assistance and farmland. Key studies and surveys were completed improving the understanding of the HIV/AIDS situation in the north. Rollout of ART started in many districts in the north, although coverage remains limited. Programmes that target food distribution and nutritional support to people starting ART have also begun.
Human rights, protection and rule of law (65% funded): Increased deployment of paralegals with consequently more systematic documentation of human rights violations in IDP camps in Gulu, Katakwi, Kitgum, Lira, Pader, and Soroti; 30 community protection committees in IDP camps in Lira and Teso promoted over 100 community campaigns against SGBV; over 100 UPDF officers trained in their responsibilities in relation to the protection of children and women; community-based child protection mechanisms were formed in 10 IDP camps in Apac, Gulu, Lira, and Soroti.
Mine action (16% funded): First group of 20 UPDF engineers out of 140 engineers planned until 2007 undergo UK-funded humanitarian de-mining training and equipment programme; coordination mechanism for mine action has been established by the OPM.
Multi-sector (75% funded): 230,262 registered refugees continued to receive assistance and protection in Adjumani, Arua, Moyo, and Yumbe districts.
Water and sanitation (38% funded): Change from manual single point water systems (springs and hand pumps) to motorised (diesel or solar) water supply systems has begun; by the end of 2005 more than 45 systems will be completed.
West Africa Region (65% funded)
Agriculture (20% funded): Emergency provision of agricultural inputs for food crop production in areas of the Sahel most severely affected by drought and locusts; community-level involvement in desert locust control.
Food (77% funded): Food aid provided to 4,942,600 recipients
Table of Contents
FOREWORD TO THE HUMANITARIAN APPEAL 2006
EXAMPLES OF KEY ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN 2005
SOME IMPROVEMENTS AND REMAINING CHALLENGES
- Humanitarian reform
- Linking relief and development: Millennium Development Goals
- Accountability and transparency
- Gains in programme coherence
- NGO participation in appeals: significant progress
- Flash appeals
- Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)
HUMANITARIAN FUNDING IN 2005
- Expanding the governmental donor base
- Private funding: how to keep the momentum beyond the tsunami?
- Funding per sector
- Humanitarian funding inside vs. outside consolidated and flash appeals
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
GREAT LAKES REGION
OCCUPIED PALESTINIAN TERRITORY
REPUBLIC OF CONGO
OTHER COUNTRY PLANS
CHECHNYA (RUSSIAN FEDERATION)
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO
INDIAN OCEAN EARTHQUAKE - TSUNAMI
SOUTH ASIA EARTHQUAKE
WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA CHOLERA FLASH APPEAL
2005 CONSOLIDATED & FLASH APPEALS: SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS
2006 APPEALS: SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS
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