Burundi

Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP): Appeal 2006 for Burundi

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) 2006 will be launched in a new political environment, led by the first democratically elected government since 1993. As in 2004 and 2005, the CAP will strive to ensure continued support for much needed humanitarian assistance during this period of early stabilisation and recovery.

Despite remarkable institutional and political progress, the situation in Burundi is still characterised by extremely fragile living conditions, due to acute food insecurity, which affects large parts of the population, as well as very limited access to basic services. Moreover, the on-going armed conflict in some provinces requires the humanitarian community to provide an emergency response and continue to attend to the protection of the civilian population.

A robust early warning and rapid response capacity for recurrent health or food emergencies is still necessary in a context marked by a weak government capacity to respond to short-term needs. By containing the main life-threatening risks, humanitarian projects will allow for a sound transition from relief to recovery and longer-term programmes. Particular consideration will be given to strengthening national capacities in these key sectors.

Taking into account the developments of the past year, the various assessments and studies carried out throughout the year, and contributions from specialised Government agencies, United Nations (UN) agencies, and international and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the 2006 CAP streamlines a range of life-saving and recovery humanitarian responses, based upon four strategic priorities:

- Continuously monitor protection and human rights issues affecting the population, and promote and disseminate human rights;

- Build and strengthen capacities for early warning and rapid response, so the response reaches populations at risk;

- Support the process of transition from relief to development, with an emphasis on short- to medium-term programmes focusing on population reinsertion and community recovery;

- Mitigate the effects of disparities between different population groups and regions, especially with regard to access to basic services and resources at the household level.

The overall amount requested in the present CAP for the implementation of humanitarian and transitional recovery programmes is US$ 127,789,889.



Consolidated Appeal for Burundi
Summary of Requirements - by Sector
as of 3 November 2005
http://www.reliefweb.int/fts

Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by donors and appealing organizations.

Sector
Funding Required US$
Agriculture
14,731,740
Coordination and support services
3,274,164
Economic recovery and infrastructure
13,135,750
Education
21,872,340
Food
-
Health
19,336,923
Mine action
3,930,400
Multi-sector
36,436,693
Protection/human rights/rule of law
7,060,211
Shelter and non-food items
3,649,022
Water and sanitation
4,372,646
Grand Total:
127,789,889

The list of projects and the figures for their funding requirements in this document are a snapshot as of 3 November 2005. For continuously updated information on projects, funding requirements, and contributions to date, visit the Financial Tracking Service (www.reliefweb.int/fts).

Consolidated Appeal for Burundi 2006
Summary of requirements - by sector
as of 3-November-2005
http://www.reliefweb.int/fts

Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by donors and appealing organizations.

Appealing Organization
Funding Required US$
ABS
224,020
ACF
800,000
ARM
1,730,000
CADI
264,058
CCIJD
100,494
CENAP
69,500
CIRID
195,199
CISV
1,258,300
CORD
1,274,053
CRS
2,510,000
DCA
1,420,000
FAO
10,387,750
HIB
488,000
HI/France
1,106,000
JVSF
204,000
NNA
259,880
NRC
3,080,000
OA
991,860
OCHA
2,054,164
ODAG
219,912
OHCHR
2,351,882
RFP
304,750
Solidarites
800,000
UNDP
11,081,825
UNESCO
10,030,445
UNFPA
2,454,750
UN-HABITAT
2,000,000
UNHCR
37,808,373
UNICEF
26,301,481
UNIFEM
266,000
UNMAS
1,025,475
UPHB
75,000
WFP
1,220,000
WHO
3,442,718
Grand Total
127,789,889

The list of projects and the figures for their funding requirements in this document are a snapshot as of 3 November 2005. For continuously updated information on projects, funding requirements, and contributions to date, visit the Financial Tracking Service (www.reliefweb.int/fts).

2005 IN REVIEW

In accordance with the objectives identified in the Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP), 2005 humanitarian programmes in Burundi focused primarily on the strengthening of community recovery activities, support to population return and reinsertion, protection of civilian populations in conflict-affected areas and rapid response to health emergencies and cycles of declining household food security conditions.

At the time of reporting, funding received for 2005 CAP projects totalled US$ 58,475,111 (or 47%) of the required US$ 121,421,099 in the CAP Mid-year Review. Contributions to food-aid programmes included in the Great Lakes Regional CAP amounted to US$ 33,300,000 (or 65% of the total required). Funding for humanitarian projects not included in the Consolidated Appeal amounted to US$ 23,076,787. Thus, the total humanitarian aid received for Burundi as of October 2005 was estimated at US$ 114,851,898. The largest share of the total funding was allocated to the food security, agriculture and health sectors, and activities related to population reinsertion and reintegration. In 2005, humanitarian funding requirements increased by 62% compared to the requirements of 2003-2004, mostly due to increasing needs to support population return and reintegration and community recovery activities. Transitional activities directed at reconstruction and community recovery were an integral part of 2005 humanitarian programmes; however the implementation of recovery programmes remained poorly funded compared to the agriculture and health sectors.

Although the country did not fall back into a large-scale emergency, such as those experienced in 2000-2002, general living conditions for the majority of the population remained extremely fragile. In 2004-2005, the Government's lack of capacity to effectively respond to the population's needs highlighted the need to sustain support for early warning and rapid response programs. Additionally, recurrent cycles of smaller emergencies during the year highlighted entrenched vulnerabilities. In this context humanitarian programmes remained focused both on containing the risks of a renewed large-scale emergency situation and addressing the consequences of the protracted crisis in Burundi.

The continuing stabilisation of the political and security context in Burundi allowed for sustained access to all parts of the territory. The exceptions to these stabilising trends remained the provinces of Bujumbura rural and Bubanza, where armed clashes between the Burundian army and the Front National de Libération (FNL) continued in 2005. However, armed confrontations did not lead to significant population displacement as in 2003-2004. Although pockets of temporary displacement, ranging from days to several weeks, occurred in the two provinces in mid-2005, access to affected populations remained open.

Whereas the reduction of the internal displacement phenomenon was a positive development, violations and abuses of human rights and international humanitarian law by all parties to the conflict remained widespread, and constituted the main humanitarian concern. UN agencies, the UN Mission in Burundi (UNOB), OCHA, and national and international NGOs undertook systematic monitoring, reporting and advocacy actions vis-à-vis the Government, the army and the FNL leadership to contain the spread of abuses against civilians in conflict-affected areas.

Persistent levels of extreme poverty combined with declining agricultural production have also been a cause of major concern. Adverse effects resulting from three years of drought, the expansion of crop pests, and lower land productivity, were most apparent in the eastern and northern regions, where an estimated 100,000 households are at permanent risk of food insecurity and fragile nutritional conditions.

To address these issues, the World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and NGOs established a special plan of action. Food aid distributions were expanded to cover 100% of the population in the provincial communes of Kirundo, Ngozi, Muyinga and Kayanza, the areas most affected by drought and food deficits. Meanwhile, targeting mechanisms were reviewed to ensure effective assistance delivery to the most vulnerable families. Nutritional surveillance and early detection were also enhanced and distribution of agricultural items was expanded. The impact of these actions helped stabilise the situation and contain further deterioration of living conditions of the most fragile households.

Since January 2005, WFP has distributed 45,800 metric tonnes (MT) of food throughout the country, reaching 1.3 million people. Out of this total, 12,500 MTs were delivered to vulnerable households through targeted distributions, 3,000 MTs were allocated to the 220 nutritional centres in Burundi, 6,000 MTs to people living with Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and other vulnerable groups in social centres, 1,000 MTs to refugee families, and 2,000 MTs to Burundian returning refugees from Tanzania and Rwanda. More than 21,300 MTs were also distributed through recovery activities, such as the seed-protection ration programme, food-for-work and training activities, Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) and school feeding.

In mid-2005, the food-aid pipeline faced important shortages, due to both delayed confirmation of contributions and the reduced response from some traditional donors. Consequently, WFP decreased distributions by half, in order to focus on supporting nutritional centres, providing food assistance to highly vulnerable households, and distributing seed-protection rations. By September food-aid distributions resumed at a larger scale following renewed donor commitment. Nevertheless, increased funding will still be required to avoid further pipeline shortages in late 2005-early 2006, especially in preparation for the potential accelerated return of refugees in the coming period.

Agricultural relief activities of FAO and its partners included the distribution of seeds and agricultural tools to 625,000 households. FAO also expanded recovery activities to target the specific vulnerabilities of approximately 40,000 households with reduced land access, Batwa minority communities, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and the chronically ill, such as HIV/AIDS-affected families. In the regions affected by drought and severe crop pest, activities focused on the distribution of 26,800,000 sweet potato cuttings and plants for improved crop and seed multiplication. Support to IDP and refugee reinsertion included the distribution of 210,000 fruit plants and the recovery of 400 hectares of swamps, benefiting 42,000 households. Relief and recovery activities in the agricultural sector were carried out in close collaboration with the provincial Departments of Agriculture, WFP, 17 international NGOs and more than 30 local associations. As of October 2005, FAO had received approximately 58% of the funding requirements included in 2005 CAP, which allowed for strengthening of activities as well as higher programme planning flexibility.

Admissions at supplementary and therapeutic nutritional centres countrywide declined in the period January-July 2005; however, overall admissions remained above the 2002-2004 average. National nutritional statistics for children under-five are shown in Table 1 below. It should be noted that these figures do not reflect important disparities among regions and pockets of high household food insecurity, such as the ones registered in the northern and eastern provinces in 2004-2005.

In the area of primary healthcare, the major concerns during the year were related to the continuous limited access to services, the poor quality of service delivery and the government's reduced capacities for surveillance and early warning. Sector activities focused on addressing these issues through a combination of early response and recovery actions. The response to epidemic cycles of malaria, cholera and meningitis depended heavily on the operational resources of UN agencies and NGOs working in the sector. The inter-agency health access and essential package programme (ECP), which started in 10 provinces in 2004, expanded to cover a total of 312 health centres in 16 provinces in 2005. Approximately 1,122,000 people have benefited from programme activities, including returning refugees and IDPs. The ECP comprises a combination of essential drugs and equipment, and basic mother and child healthcare service provision and training, including HIV/AIDS prevention and reproductive health activities. The programme also includes health screening and referral services for returning refugees at transit centres and quarterly cross-border information exchange with health partners working in refugee camps in Tanzania. In September 2005, 62% of the health centres covered by the programme had reached full ECP implementation, while 34% of remaining centres was in the process of ECP completion.

Health Access and Essential Package Programme: 2005 Activities

Distribution of:

- 378 essential drug kits, covering an estimated 567,000 consultations;

- 150 health emergency kits, covering an estimated 1,500,000 patients;

- 1,250 trauma kits and 2,500 replenishment kits;

- 900 basic surgery kits;

- 40 midwife drugs and equipment kits and 10 obstetrical surgery kits.

Training and supervision

- Refresher training for 395 nurses and 77 health centre managers;

- Availability of staff management and supervision tools at 178 centres, drug stock management at 185 centres and health centre audit at 107 centres.

The number of HIV/AIDS test and treatment centres expanded from 89 in 2002 to 115 in 2004, which in turn has led to a rise in the number of tested people from 30,412 in 2002 to 71,730 in 2004. Efforts to decentralise counselling and testing services, Anti-retroviraux (ARV) treatment facilities and mother-to-child prevention have also expanded. A national law protecting the rights of HIV-positive individuals has been passed and is ready for implementation. Intensive screening of blood donors and testing of donated blood have reduced the risk of transmission through transfusion. However, stock shortages of ARV treatment posed widespread constraints for treatment facilities in 2005, while universal precautions and affordable treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) need to be further developed.

The return of refugees and IDPs to zones of origin continued without interruption during the year. The pace of refugee return slowed down considerably in the last quarter of 2004 and in the first months of 2005, mostly due to refugees' concerns related to security conditions and the electoral process in the country. Nevertheless, the return started accelerating in mid-2005 at a weekly rate of 4,500 persons. Seven out of the 17 Burundian provinces register the highest numbers of return: Ruyigi, Muyinga, Makamba, Kirundo, Rutana, Cankuzo and Karusi (see Annex II). Of the estimated total of 431,010 Burundian refugees living in Tanzanian camps and settlements, 270,944 returned to Burundi in the period 2002-September 2005. In the first nine months of the year, 49,564 refugees returned to Burundi from Tanzania and Rwanda.

The number of IDPs living in sites for the displaced has decreased from 145,000 in 170 sites in 2004 to 117,000 IDPs in 160 sites countrywide in 2005. The return flow has been continuous since early 2004, especially in the southern provinces of Makamba, Bururi, and Rutana. Most of the displaced still living in sites are concentrated in the central and northern provinces, where IDPs' willingness to return home is still conditioned by concerns related to security, stability and inter-ethnic relationships in their zones of origin. Annex III shows the geographical distribution of IDPs and displacement sites by province.

Cross-border population movements were marked by the influx of Rwandan asylum seekers in the northern Burundian provinces in March-June 2005. At the peak of the influx, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that 10,300 people had arrived in the provinces of Kirundo, Ngozi and Muyinga, excluding an unknown number of people dispersed in the provincial communes who were hosted by Burundian families. Women and children were the most numerous groups and unusually high numbers of unaccompanied children were recorded in some places. Fear of the traditional Gacaca tribunals and persecution were the major reasons given by asylum seekers for having fled Rwanda.

In late April, and following direct contacts between the two governments, Burundian authorities announced their decision to halt all transfers away from borders areas, contravening applicable international conventions. Both governments decided to organise sensitisation sessions led by Rwandan authorities to encourage the return. The sessions were met with strong resistance against the return, and in mid-June both governments declared the asylum seekers illegal immigrants. On 12-14 June, Rwandan authorities organised a swift repatriation operation. The denial of asylum rights, the lack of appropriate procedures for case evaluation, the maintenance of populations in border areas and the continuous access limitations for humanitarian assistance and personnel by government authorities were major concerns for the humanitarian community in Burundi. Despite high-level advocacy actions undertaken by the UN, the diplomatic community and NGOs in Burundi, governmental decisions represented a step backwards in the effective application of international conventions that provide for the protection of asylum seekers and refugees. By mid-September, UNHCR confirmed that 2,373 Rwandan asylum seekers remained in the country. UNHCR and WFP continued providing basic assistance to the families mostly through local churches and organisations. The government has not re-evaluated the status of these people since June.

The northern provinces also witnessed the departure of approximately 7,700 Burundians to Rwanda. The population movement, which originated mostly from the provinces of Kirundo, Muyinga and Ngozi, started in the third quarter of 2004 and continued in 2005. Some 3,400 people from the same provinces also moved southeast. Although seasonal migrations across the Burundian-Rwandan border and from northern to southern areas in Burundi are common, the movements registered in 2004-2005 occurred outside the seasonal cycles and were surrounded by rumours related to alleged political pressure and inter-ethnic tensions. These internal and cross-border movements tended to peak around the key dates of the 2005 election and political transition calendar, which acted as immediate triggering factors. However, a series of rapid assessments showed that other factors were related to loss of crops and household assets, rising household food insecurity, and difficulties in the process of social and economic reinsertion. The majority of the people who left their homes were IDPs and young families repatriated from Tanzania in 2004. As of September, approximately 4,300 Burundians remained in Rwandan refugee camps. Although in Burundi, Rwandan asylum seekers had also been declared illegal immigrants at the time of the governmental decisions of June 2005, the establishment of a Tripartite Commission with the participation of UNHCR in August is intended to ensure the application of the voluntary repatriation principle.

Another important development in Burundi's transition was the creation of the Free Primary Education initiative, for which the Burundian government deserves considerable credit. The implementation of this initiative will be a key challenge to be addressed by the UN and the NGOs in 2006.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Burundi Basic Statistics and Demographics

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • Table I: Summary of Requirements by Appealing Organisation and by Sector

2. 2005 IN REVIEW

3. THE 2006 COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN

3.1. THE CONTEXT AND ITS HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES

  • 3.1.A Post-conflict Political Transition in Burundi
  • 3.1.B Humanitarian Priorities and the Transition from Relief to Development

3.2 SCENARIOS

3.3 STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE

3.4 RESPONSE PLANS

  • 3.4.A Protection and Human Rights
  • 3.4.B Agriculture and Food Security
  • 3.4.C Health
  • 3.4.D Education
  • 3.4.E Economic Recovery and Infrastructure
  • 3.4.F Multi Sector
  • 3.4.G Mine Action
  • 3.4.H Small Arms and Light Weapons
  • 3.4.I Coordination and Support Services

4. STRATEGIC MONITORING PLAN

5. CRITERIA FOR PRIORITISATION OF PROJECTS

6. STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE

  • Table II: List of Project Activities by Sector and by Appealing Organisation

ANNEX I. DONOR RESPONSE TO THE 2005 APPEAL

ANNEX II. NUMBER OF FACILITATED RETURNEES FROM TANZANIA PER COMMUNE IN BURUNDI

ANNEX III. DISPLACED POPULATION IN SITE

ANNEX IV. JOINT CONTINGENCY PLAN / SUMMARY MATRIX OF EMERGENCY PROFILES

ANNEX V. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Project summary sheets are in a separate volume entitle "Projects".

Note: The full text of this appeal is available on-line in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format and may also be downloaded in zipped MS Word format.

Volume 1 - Full Original Appeal [pdf* format] [zipped MS Word format]
Volume 2 - Projects [pdf* format] [zipped MS Word format]

* Get the Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free)

For additional copies, please contact:

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
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CH - 1211 Geneva, Switzerland

Tel.: (41 22) 917.1972
Fax: (41 22) 917.0368
E-Mail: cap@reliefweb.int

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
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