The initial case was a 7-month old male child who recovered from the disease. The second case was a 6-year old male child who died 2 days later. Both cases were not vaccinated against Yellow fever and were first confirmed at the National Laboratory of Muraz Center and reconfirmed at the WHO regional laboratory for Yellow fever at the Institut Pasteur of Dakar, Senegal.
The routine infant immunization in the health district of Ouahigouya started in 2002 and the reported Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) coverage at the end of 2007 was 85.3%. This health district was not retained as a high priority epidemic risk during the consensus meeting for the Yellow fever risk assessment in 2007. Thirty seven health districts in Burkina Faso will benefit from a Yellow fever preventative mass vaccination campaign on 13 November 2008.
On the basis of the outbreak investigation, it was decided to carry out a reactive mass vaccination campaign targeting 366,052 people in the health district of Ouahigouya. In response to the outbreak, the MoH has made a request for Yellow fever vaccines for the preventative mass vaccination campaign from the GAVI funded Global Emergency Stockpile for Yellow fever vaccine, managed by the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Yellow Fever Control (YF-ICG).