Overall, 29 provinces in seven regions of Burkina Faso were in an Alert (IPC Phase 2) to Serious (IPC Phase 3) nutritional situation between August and November 2019, which coincides with the peak period of malnutrition. It is estimated that 360,048 children aged 6-59 months will suffer from acute malnutrition during 2020 based on the results of the national nutritional survey (SMART) conducted in October 2019.
Between August-November 2019, 26 provinces were classified as Alert (IPC Phase 2), namely: Soum, Oudalan, Gourma, Gnagna, Kompièga, Komondjari, Tapoa, Bâlés, Banwa, Kossi, Mouhoun, Nayala, Sourou, Loroum, Passoré, Yatenga, Zandoma, Boulgou, Kouritenga, Koulpelgo, Bam, Namentenga, Sanmatenga, Ziro, Sanguié, Boulkiemdé and Sissili. Meanwhile, three provinces (Séno, Yagha and Sanguié) were classified as Serious (IPC Phase 3).
Between December 2019 and March 2020, the situation has likely seen a moderate deterioration, with six provinces moving into a Serious phase namely: Soum, Oudalan, Loroum, Yatenga, Bam and Sanmantenga. On the other hand, the province of Sanguié has likely seen an improvement by moving to the Alert phase from the Serious phase, mainly due to fewer cases of diarrhea and improved food intake for children. Meanwhile, two provinces (Seno and Yagha) will likely remain in the Serious phase, with the 20 other analysed provinces remaining in the Alert phase.
From April-July 2020, a further deterioration in the nutritional situation is expected if necessary measures are not taken. The provinces of Seno, Soum, Oudalan and Yagha could shift from the Serious phase to the Critical phase. Whereas, the provinces of Sanguié, Gourma, Kossi, Nayala, Sourou, Zandoma and Namentenga are expected to move from the Alert phase to the Serious phase. Meanwhile, the provinces of Loroum, Yatenga, Bam and Sanmatenga will likely remain in the Serious phase.
The major contributing factors of acute malnutrition in the focal areas vary from one unit of analysis to another. However, overall, the most prevalent factors include: poor eating practices, high rates of fever and diarrhoea among children, poor hygiene conditions, inaccessibility to sanitation facilities and poor access to drinking water. Insecurity and inter-communal fighting (mainly in North, Sahel, North Centre, Boucle du Mouhoun, East areas) has led to the displacement of a large portion of the population, as well as the destruction of health infrastructure and closure of health facilities. This is a major risk to the nutritional situation of the affected areas, especially for women and children under the age of five.