A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
The heavy rainfall between July and September 2019 across Bangladesh led to landslides and extreme flooding over one-fourth of the country areas. According to the National Needs Assessment Working Group (NAWG), Bangladesh situation report dated 28 July 2019, more than 7.6 million people were affected in 28 districts, over 300,000 people were displaced, approximately 600,000 houses were damaged, and 114 people dead. In addition, about 532,000 hectares of crops were destroyed and embankments damaged. Bangladesh experienced another spell of flood in north-eastern districts named Rajshahi, Shariatpur, Kushtia, Rajbari, Chapai Nawabganj, Pabna and Natore during the first week of October 2019, which affected some new areas. Due to this second spell of the flood, around 40,000 people were affected, according to the NAWG. While more than half of the country experiencing sufferings from the monsoon floods, the Dengue situation in the country reached peak transmission during June to October 2019, with hospitals overflowing with patients and the rising number of dengue patients had broken all previous records. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) confirmed 148 deaths till December 2019.
Besides that, the country experienced several cold waves over different districts of Chuadanga, Dinajpur, Panchagarh, Rajshahi, Pabna, Naogaon, Nilphamari, Jessore, Bogura, Lalmonirhat, Gaibandha, Kurigram, Sirajganj, Tangail, Jamalpur, and others between December 2019 and January 2020, disrupting normal life and causing suffering to the flood-affected people. The country experienced the lowest temperature of 4.5°C on 30 December 2019.
In 2020, amid the COVID-19 pandemic, Cyclone Amphan slammed into the coastal districts of West Bengal, India. It entered Bangladesh on 20 May 2020 evening with a wind speed of 150 km/hr and caused huge destruction in 26 districts. More than 2.4 million people were moved to 14,636 permanent and temporary shelters in 19 coastal districts before the cyclone hit the country's coast. Approximately 2.6 million people were affected, 205,368 houses were damaged, 55,767 houses were destroyed and 26 people lost their lives. In addition, 40,894 latrines, 18,235 water points, 32,037 hectares of crops and vegetables, 18,707 hectares of fish cultivation area, 440km of road and 76km of the embankment were damaged. Similar geographical areas were affected by severe floods once again during the last week of June 2020, driven by heavy monsoon and upstream water, prolonged and intensified suffering of 5.4 million people in the northern, central and northeastern part of the country. Around 37 per cent of the country's total area were flooded, affecting 33 districts and hence, it was considered the longest flood in the last 22 years in the country.