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Asia - Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Programs Fact Sheet #1, Fiscal Year (FY) 2005

Situation Report
Originally published


Note: The last fact sheet was dated July 6, 2004


The Asia-Pacific region is extremely prone to natural hazards such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, landslides, volcanoes, droughts, tsunamis, and wildfires. Asia's vulnerability is compounded by socio-economic conditions that are steadily increasing the impact of disasters. Demographic changes, urbanization, and environmental degradation have reduced the amount of habitable land available, forcing the settlement of hazard-prone, marginal lands, such as flood plains and steep slopes. In addition to natural disasters, civil crises and complex emergencies also affect development in the Asia-Pacific region. USAID/OFDA is committed to assisting in the development of preparedness, mitigation, and emergency response capacities for natural disasters and conflicts. Since 1995, USAID/OFDA has provided approximately $42.1 million for ongoing preparedness and mitigation projects throughout the region. To date in FY 2005, USAID/OFDA has provided more than $3 million for disaster preparedness and mitigation projects in the Asia-Pacific region.

USAID/OFDA Preparedness and Mitigation Assistance


Asian Urban Disaster Mitigation Program (AUDMP): Implemented by the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) in Thailand, AUDMP has received USAID/OFDA assistance since its inception in September 1995. The program aims to make cities safer by reducing the disaster vulnerability of urban populations and by promoting replication and adaptation of successful preparedness measures in targeted cities throughout Asia. AUDMP also promotes sharing of disaster-related information, networking among regional disaster managers, and the development and management of courses for non-governmental organizations (NGOs), disaster management organizations, and regional and national governments. To date, AUDMP has implemented projects in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Current AUDMP activities are focused in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. USAID/OFDA support to AUDMP will end in July 2005. USAID/OFDA has posted an Annual Program Statement (APS) at soliciting proposals for post-AUDMP urban mitigation activities. Total funding since 1995 is $9,453,800.

Program for the Enhancement of Emergency Response (PEER), Phase II: The PEER program is creating a large pool of trained instructors from emergency response agencies who will in turn train others from their organizations. Focusing on earthquake preparedness, the objective of the program is to assist local, regional, and national disaster management agencies in organizing and conducting training in Medical First Response, Collapsed Structure Search and Rescue, and Hospital Preparedness for Emergency Training. The first phase of PEER, managed by the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), began in 1998 in India, Indonesia, Nepal, and the Philippines. Phase II of PEER, implemented by the National Society for Earthquake Technology (NSET) based in Nepal, continues the activities begun in the original countries with the addition of Bangladesh. During Phase II, PEER will increase the corps of trainers, adapt courses to national requirements, introduce a hospital-preparedness course for mass casualties, and create a coordinating network of disaster responders in each country. Phase II of PEER began in March 2003 and will continue through March 2008. Total PEER funding since 1998 is $7,198,117 - FY 05 $1,500,000

South Pacific Disaster Training Program, Phase II: USAID/OFDA has supported the South Pacific Disaster Training Program implemented by The Asia Foundation since 1995. The objectives of the program are to: 1) improve the capacity and performance of local and national disaster management agencies and individuals; 2) develop and adapt training materials relevant to the region; and 3) strengthen the capacity of South Pacific nations to organize and conduct disaster management courses. The Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu, participated in the first phase of the program. The second phase, which began in April 2004 and will continue through April 2007, was awarded to The Asia Foundation following a competitive APS solicitation. Phase two includes two new participating countries: Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Total funding to date is $3,060,141 - FY 05 $450,000

Asia Flood Network: The Asia Flood Network (AFN) strengthens the capacity of national hydrometeorological institutions in climate, weather, and hydrological forecasting while directly involving communities at risk in reducing vulnerability to hydrometeorological hazards. In cooperation with partners in Asia, the AFN is jointly implemented by USAID/OFDA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Current activities are focused on the Mekong and the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Megna river basins, but other potential implementations of the AFN include the Red River Basin. USAID/OFDA, in cooperation with NOAA and USGS, has been providing 24-hour satellite estimates and short-term forecasts of rainfall over the Mekong River basin and surrounding areas to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) since 2001. The AFN will continue until August 2008. To date, USAID/OFDA has provided $1,250,000 of the estimated $2,500,000 total cost.

Technical Assistance for Hydrometeorological Disasters: The U.S. National Weather Service and USGS provide technical advice and guidance to the Mekong River Commission and the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) on various hydro-meteorological issues including community based flood mitigation, data collection systems using telecommunications for real-time data collection and transmission, and data sharing in trans-boundary river basins. Total project funding to date is $170,000.

Strengthening of Local Volcano Monitoring Efforts: USAID/OFDA supports the USGS's Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) in order to provide technical assistance to volcano monitoring organizations throughout the world. In Asia, USGS/VDAP provides technical assistance to the Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, to the Port Moresby Geophysical Observatory and Rabaul Volcano Observatory in Papua New Guinea, and to the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazards Mitigation in Indonesia. VDAP assistance includes training on conducting hazard assessments, development of early warning plans, installation, and updating of volcano monitoring equipment, and technology transfers. Funding for this program is part of a world-wide initiative with the USGS.

South Asia

India Earthquake Safety Initiative: Implemented by Geohazard International, the objectives of the program are to conduct risk assessments and risk reduction activities in 20 of India's most earthquake-prone urban areas, and implement mitigation activities in 5 of those areas. This program, co-funded by USAID/OFDA and USAID/India, began in September 2002 and will continue until October 2005. Total USAID/OFDA funding to date is $650,000.

Incident Command System (ICS) Training: Implemented through an interagency agreement between USAID/OFDA and the U.S. Forest Service, this capacity-building program provides ICS training and simulation exercises at the national and state levels in India and the region. Additional funding is provided by USAID/India. The program also provides technical assistance and training to government and non-government disaster managers to assist them in developing coordinated disaster response planning. The first phase of ICS trainings ran from April 2002 through April 2004. The second phase will continue through September 2006. To date, USAID/OFDA has provided $1,706,712 to support the program.

Regional Flood Forecasting: USAID/OFDA supports technical assessments and forums that bring together decision-makers and technical personnel from the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region to promote collaboration and share information related to flood management, flood early-warning systems, and broader trans-boundary water issues. The forums are hosted by the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) based in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan participate in the program. The support to ICIMOD began in November 2001 and will continue through December 2005. Total funding to date is $250,860.

Community Flood Monitoring and Forecasting in Bangladesh: Implemented by Riverside Technology Inc., this five-year USAID/OFDA project supports a community-based approach for flood monitoring and forecasting to reduce the vulnerability of communities living in floodplains and mitigate future flood damage in Bangladesh. The project began in September 2002 and ends in September 2007. Total funding to date is $576,977 - FY 05 $180,000

Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Risk Management Plan: The National Society for Earthquake Technology (NSET) in Kathmandu, Nepal works with the Government of Nepal, NGOs, schools, and local communities to increase earthquake awareness and preparedness by coordinating and monitoring the long-term earthquake risk reduction plan for the Kathmandu Valley. The project began in September 2000 and will continue through August 2005. Total funding to date is $651,555 - FY 05 $100,000

Southeast Asia

Flood Early-Warning Systems in the Mekong River Basin: This activity is implemented by the Mekong River Commission (MRC), an inter-governmental river basin organization based in Vientiane, Laos. The governments of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam participate in the USAID/OFDA-funded activities that increase flood forecasting capacity and early-warning information transfer to communities in the Lower Mekong River Basin. The project will strengthen flood warnings by making communities more responsive to the needs of at-risk populations in Cambodia and Laos, and will develop tools, methods, and protocols with community-based partners to enable flood-vulnerable populations to effectively utilize MRC flood information. This five-year program began in January 2003 and ends in January 2008. Total funding to date is $1,954,855 - FY 05 $344,855

Climate Forecast Applications: This project is a follow-up initiative to the 1998-2003 Extreme Climate Events Program. The objective of the Climate Forecast Applications, implemented by the ADPC, is to strengthen the national capabilities of Indonesia and the Philippines to manage and reduce the impacts of climate fluctuations through targeted demonstration projects and community participation. The project will develop decision support tools and capacities to reduce vulnerability to climate variability at the community level and mobilize communities to utilize the climate forecast data. The second-phase of the program began in April 2003 and will conclude in April 2008. Total funding to date of both phases is $2,048,863 - FY 05 $250,000

Coastal Storm Early-Warning System in Vietnam: USAID/OFDA provides funding to UNDP, working in collaboration with the Government of Vietnam's (GVN) Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, for the implementation of a radio-based coastal storm warning system. Using radio broadcasts, the project will provide early-warnings for fishing boats up to 65 miles offshore and for 25 coastal provinces of Vietnam. The NOAA National Weather Service assisted the GVN with the design of the storm warning system. The U.N. Development Program (UNDP) is working with the GVN to design community-based disaster preparedness training for the subsistence fishing populations at the commune and village levels. This project began in May 2001 and will continue through December 2005. Total project funding to date is $1,440,000.

Conflict Preparedness Program in Mindanao, Philippines: Implemented by Save the Children/Philippines, the first part of this initiative will enable disaster preparedness activities to respond to internally displaced population flows and provide prompt access to these populations in the conflict-affected areas of western Mindanao. The program aims to strengthen an emergency response network of local NGOs and community-based groups to implement preparedness and relief activities, provide small grants to local NGO, and create a small stockpile of locally procured relief items for use in emergencies. The second part of this initiative will focus on the needs of returning IDPs through livelihood interventions using seeds and tools, basic fishing equipment, and other targeted enhancements for community stabilization. The program will also support community activities to ensure potable water resources. Initiated in March 2003, these programs will continue until October 2006. Total project funding to date is $1,000,000.

Avian Influenza Preparedness: Since December 2003, ten Asian countries have reported outbreaks of the "H5N1" Avian Influenza virus, and 53 people have died in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand. In FY 2004, USAID/OFDA provided $250,000 to the U.N. World Health Organization to support avian influenza containment activities in the region. In FY 2005, USAID/OFDA pre-positioned 10,000 sets of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the countries most at risk - Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Indonesia. USAID/OFDA is an active participant of USAID's Avian Influenza Working Group, which works with other agencies involved in the Avian Influenza preparedness and response activities including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. State Department, and U.S. Department of Defense. The USG is working to improve surveillance capacity, strengthen capacity to respond to outbreaks in humans and animals, and promote pandemic preparedness planning. Funding to date is $491,450 - FY 05 $241,450

USAID/OFDA FY 2005 Preparedness and Mitigation Assistance to date: $3,066,305

USAID/OFDA FY 2005 Preparedness and Mitigation Assistance by Sector

Project Name
Program for the Enhancement of Emergency Response, Phase II
South Pacific Disaster Training, Phase II
Flood Forecasting in Bangladesh
Kathmandu Valley Risk Management Plan
Mekong River Basin Flood Early-Warning
Climate Forecast Applications
Avian Influenza Preparedness
Total: $3,066,305

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