As of 1 May, Chile reopened 22 land border crossings with Argentina, Bolivia and Peru that had been closed since 17 March 2020 after the arrival of COVID-19. In Desaguadero (Bolivia’s border with Peru) R4V partners reported anthe entry of 114 refugees and migrants from Venezuela during the second half of the month entering through that border and requesting humanitarian assistance. Despite the fact that most Venezuelan refugees and migrants met the requirements for regular entry to Bolivia, due to lack of knowledge on the procedure, some were entering irregularly. Once in Bolivia, some Venezuelans who were informed by R4V partners about the difficulties with entry into Chile evaluated the possibility of continuing their transit to Argentina, Paraguay or returning to Peru. In terms of health and protection, R4V partners identified vulnerable groups of pregnant women and separated or unaccompanied children among those arriving. In Pisiga (at the border with Chile) departures of Venezuelans continued while the military presence on the Chilean side to control irregular entries diminished.On 10 May, partners observed 439 refugees and migrants leaving Bolivia for Chile in a single day at Pisiga (border with Chile), most arriving directly from Desaguaderond those who can not afford the transportation from Peru by organized criminal groups usually stay up to three days in Oruro. During the first half of May, an R4V partners’ shelter in Pisiga received approximately 60 refugees and migrants, mostly Venezuelan women and girls. In the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, partners provided assistance to at least 32 refugees and migrants who had entered the country mostly irregularly (14) through Desaguadero (border with Peru) and Guayaramerin (border with Brazil). During the last week of May, R4V partners in Villamontes assisted some 15 refugees and migrants in transit to Paraguay with humanitarian assistance and advice to meet the current health requirements for entering the country.
According to data from the National Directorate of Migration, since the re-opening of borders in Uruguay on 1 November 2021, at least 4,900 Venezuelans have entered and remained in the country, representing an approximately 31 per cent increase in the refugee and migrant population. In Uruguay, partners raised concerns about delays in processing the certificate of arrival for refugees and migrants from Venezuela with the National Directorate of Migration, a prerequisite for obtaining the Uruguayan identity card, which is essential to guarantee access to health, education, legal employment and other rights.
As of 10 May, the Government of Argentina authorized granting temporary residence for a period of up to one hundred and eighty days to foreign nationals of countries that do not require a tourist visa to enter the country (including Venezuelans) in order to provide services remotely through the use of computer, telecommunications or similar means, referred to as "digital nomads".