From Francesco Strippoli, Senior Humanitarian Advisor. Available on the Internet on the WFP Home Page at http://www.wfp.org/ or by e-mail from Natasha.Nadazdin@wfp.org . For information on resources, donors are requested to contact Aleesa.Blum@wfp.org or Marius.deGaayFortman@wfp.org at WFP Rome, telephone 39 06 6513 2004 or 06 6513 2250. Media queries should be directed to Trevor.Rowe@wfp.org telephone 39 06 6513 2602. The address of WFP is Via Cesare Giulio Viola 68, Parco dei Medici, 00148 Rome, Italy.
This issue of the Emergency Report prepared by Deborah Hicks and Natasha Nadazdin.
PART I - HIGHLIGHTS
(Details below in Part II)
A. HORN OF AFRICA DROUGHT
1. A summary of WFP assistance to victims of drought in the greater Horn of Africa area, prepared by the Africa Bureau, is attached in a supplement to this Emergency Report. For the purpose of the brief, Greater Horn of Africa comprises Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan, Kenya, Djibouti, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.
2. Highlights of the summary - information as of 10 April:
a) Horn of Africa experiencing serious food crisis caused primarily by drought; some 15.3 million people affected; in addition, 2.5 million refugees and internally displaced persons in the region are in need of food aid; some 70 percent of drought victims believed to be women and children.
b) Approximately 1 million metric tons of relief food required for the drought-affected in the Greater Horn of Africa in year 2000; Ethiopia accounts for 76 percent; this requirement likely to increase if the rains expected in much of the region between February and April are poor or fail.
c) WFP seeking to provide some 392,000 metric tons of food aid to 8.6 million people in the region at a total value of USD 219 million; this quantity will be increased if the situation further deteriorates.
d) The Supplement also includes a summary of the drought situation by country and a section on contingency planning in the Horn of Africa.
1. Update - information as of 5 April
a) Security in Angola unpredictable; travelling by road remains a high risk in some areas.
b) In April, WFP plans to serve 1,267,890 persons with 17,120 tons of food commodities; largest programmes are in Huambo, Malange and Bie.
c) Food crisis in Kuito imminent as air transport impossible due to deteriorated runway; alternative road access to Kuito limited.
d) Serious food pipeline breaks expected from August for most commodities; total shortfalls from April to September expected to amount to 22,098 tons, mostly cereals and pulses; WFP urges further large contributions to avoid imminent breaks.
e) WFP emergency operation in Namibia for Angolan refugees: Osire camp population now 10,150; further resources needed.
1. Madagascar update - information as of 7 April
a) Tropical cyclone Hudah hit north-eastern part of Madagascar on 2 April already seriously affected by previous cyclone Gloria.
b) According to preliminary estimates of an assessment mission, consisting of UN agencies, Government, USAID and MSF-F, some 308,000 people are affected, and about 100,000 people are in need of emergency assistance.
c) The worst affected is area of Antalaha, with some 32,500 persons in need of immediate food aid.
d) Two helicopters financed by US grant to be used in the North as of 7 April; WFP investigating a possibility of a further helicopter and will hire more boats.
e) A UN flash appeal will be issued shortly to address immediate needs for tents, food, blankets, health kits, water purification tablets and building materials.
1. Update - information for period 27 March to 2 April
a) Cyclone Hudah's arrival in Mozambique Channel was being closely monitored as of 4 Apr; WFP has over 1,000 tons of food commodities in Nampula city and another 500 tons expected shortly in Quelimane to bring existing stocks to over 600 tons.
b) WFP provides food at over 150 distribution points to some 570,000 people.
c) Over 1,000 tons of WFP commodities delivered during the week by air, boat and road to five affected provinces of southern and central Mozambique.
d) Current air capacity stands at 34 aircraft, 11 fixed wing aeroplanes and 23 helicopters. Out of the total of 34 aircraft, 24 are being funded through WFP and 5 through USAID.
E. NORTH CAUCASUS
1. WFP operation for internally displaced persons (Information based on WFP North Caucasus Weekly Brief of 4 April 2000)
a) WFP Emergency Operation for the North Caucasus (EMOP 6197) to provide basic food rations to 150,000 displaced Chechens in Ingushetia until end June 2000 as a part of UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for the Northern Caucasus launched on 15 March; food requirement 11,800 tons at a total WFP cost of USD 6.7 million.
b) Those displaced not assisted by WFP receive assistance from alternative sources such as Islamic Relief and ICRC.
c) Security assessments relating to possible humanitarian operations inside Chechnya are planned to begin this week.
PART II - DETAILS
A. HORN OF AFRICA DROUGHT
1. UPDATE - information as of 10 April
1.1 A summary of the WFP assistance to victims of drought in the greater Horn of Africa, prepared by the Africa Bureau, is attached as a supplement to this Emergency Report. For the purpose of the brief, Greater Horn of Africa comprises Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan, Kenya, Djibouti, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.
1. UPDATE - information for period 29 March - 5 April
1.1 The security situation in Angola remains unpredictable. Reports of attacks on roads against military and civilian convoys make movement by road high risk. The NGO Halo Trust has lost three staff, killed on Lubango-Benguela road (Municipality of Chongoroi), in February and one in March. Travel on high-risk roads is being discouraged.
1.2 In April, the number of beneficiaries targeted by WFP in Angola totals 1,267,890 persons who will receive 17,120 tons of food commodities, against 1,135,594 persons who received 15,712 tons of food commodities in March. The largest individual programme is planned in Huambo where general distribution is carried out until the end of April (305,245 beneficiaries for 3,980 tons), followed by Malange (219,656 beneficiaries for 2,484 tons), and Bie (213,252 beneficiaries for 3,170 tons).
1.3 Bie: An imminent food crisis will be felt in Kuito as food resupplying has become difficult due to the deteriorated runway. WFP's planned distribution for April will be reduced to at most approximately 65 percent, even if road transport to Kuito can be used. There are presently bridge access limitations. A break in supplies will provoke a serious food crisis in Kuito in April and May at a time when WFP had planned to augment its general rations to 2,100 kcal/person/day and consider resident population in the general distribution.
1.4 Kuando Kubango: Last week, the 12,837 IDPs in Kuito Kuanavale received their last general food distribution through the Italian NGO MOVIMONDO MOLISV, as the partnership contract with WFP is terminated. As from the beginning of April, a collective kitchens programme for IDP children and the elderly is being implemented by CARITAS Menongue with WFP food products.
1.5 Pipeline: Serious pipeline breaks are expected from August for most commodities if the resource level remains unchanged. As per the present pipeline forecast, the total shortfalls from April to September are expected to amount to 22,098 tons, the major shortfalls being cereals (19,588 tons) and pulses (1,697 tons). In view of the time which elapses between a confirmation of contribution and the actual arrival of the commodities in country, announcement of large contributions are therefore needed now to avoid such imminent breaks in the pipeline.
2. WFP EMERGENCY OPERATION IN NAMIBIA
2.1 UNHCR has informed WFP that Osire camp population had now reached 10,150. The WFP assistance currently in country (200 tons) is sufficient to cover the refugees food aid needs for a month and a half. Presently, 616 tons of maize are being transported from Namibe port to Namibia, which is expected to cover the maize needs for approximately five months. The initial tonnage of 751 tons, of which 720 tons funded by the US, was increased to 951 tons. A quantity of 203 tons of commodities was purchased locally in Namibia. In view of the constant increase of the number of Angolan refugees in Namibia, it is anticipated that an expansion of the EMOP will be necessary after August. Resources therefore need to be mobilized to complete the initial phase of the EMOP and to ensure the continuity of supplies after the termination of the initial phase, at the end of August.
C. MADAGASCAR - NEW CYCLONE
1. UPDATE - information as of 7 April
1.1 Tropical cyclone Hudah, the third one for the 2000 cyclone season, hit the north-eastern part of Madagascar on 2 April, entering at the level of the town of Antalaha. The cyclone size was around 400 km, while its centre (eye) was a 50 km diameter, located on Antalaha, but including the city of Maroantsetra. It brought blasts of wind of about 300 km per hour and a huge pressure below 900 hPa. The routing was Antalaha, Andapa, Bealanana and Analalava. This third cyclone, nearly a month after Eline (17/18 February) and Gloria (2/3 March), is the strongest recorded in 50 years. The cyclone hit the same areas as Gloria which already caused serious damage to Maroantsetra, Andapa and Sambava.
1.2 A low flight UN assessment mission took place on 4 April of Maroantsetra (without landing, as the airport was under floods), Antalaha, Andapa and Sambava (refuelling). The assessment team was made up of the UN Resident Coordinator, UNICEF, WFP, FAO along with the National Coordinator for Relief, USAID, MSF-F. In the three districts, some 308,000 people (of which 61,600 children under five) have been affected. Preliminary estimates put about 100,000 people in need of emergency assistance, including 13,000 children.
1.3 WFP reports the following damage and needs:
a) Maroantsetra and the surrounding rural communes: About 75 percent of the area is largely flooded. Before Hudah, the lands under crops were flooded by Gloria. The authorities estimate that at least 75 percent of the population living in this district, approximately 111,000 persons, have been affected, of which about 20 percent (22,000) are expected to need food assistance. Many villages are isolated by the water and crops (mainly rice) will be largely lost.
b) Antalaha: The area worst hit by Hudah was the small city of Antalaha, population 173,334, and surrounding villages, situated on the route of the cyclone eye. About 80 percent of houses have been damaged, and more than 50 percent totally destroyed. People without shelter are particularly vulnerable, as the rain season continues. Of the areas affected, this has the largest concentration of homeless families. Some 32,500 persons will need food immediately, in addition to shelters, water purification and many diversified non-food-items. Damage has been recorded 20-30 km around Antalaha. This district will need assistance for at least 4 to 5 months. Antalaha is the centre of vanilla production on the island. Most of the plantations have been destroyed by the very strong winds, which will create a severe macro-economic difficulty.
c) Between Antalaha up to Andapa: Area not as severely damaged here as elsewhere in the cyclone-affected area, but Andapa, the main local rice supplier, has been again flooded, as it was after Gloria, and most of the rice crops are under water, including some villages located in the same valley. It is estimated that 15 percent of the 68,000 affected population, or approximately 10,200 persons, will need emergency food aid.
1.4 WFP plans to establish temporary liaison offices at Antalaha and Maroantsetra. WFP food will be delivered to these areas using the National Army Antonov 26 for short term immediate deliveries, and via the French boat being made available from Tamatave to Maroantsetra and Antalaha.
1.5 Two helicopters financed by US grant will be used for the North - as of 7 April, one helicopter is based in Sambava in the North-East and another in Mahanoro. WFP is seeking further helicopter and other air support, and will hire more boats.
1.6 It is expected that further food assistance needs will arise from the ongoing rapid assessment and from the findings and recommendations of the FAO/WFP crop and food supply assessment mission. An expansion of the current EMOP will be prepared to request additional resources.
1.7 Current needs:
a) After Hudah, there are 309,000 people affected in the North-East, of which 64,700 are in need of immediate food assistance, as follows: Antalaha - 32,500 persons; Maroantsetra - 22,000 persons; Andapa - 10,200 persons.
b) In the Eastern part of the country (affected by Eline and Gloria), many villages remain isolated, and access is only by helicopter. In those places, free distribution will be continued. At the same time, food-for-work activities will start with CARE International in less isolated areas. In the South-East and South-West, food-for-work activities are also ongoing.
c) In the North-East (the areas affected by Eline, Gloria and mainly by Hudah) the immediate risks are the increase of diarrhoea due to lack of clean water and poor sanitation and hunger due to crop destruction (the period of harvest in those areas is May-June). Most areas need to be reached by helicopter.
1.8 A UN flash appeal will be issued shortly to address immediate needs for tents, food, blankets, health kits, water purification tablets and building materials.
1. UPDATE - information for period 27 March to 2 April
1.1 The development of Cyclone Hudah in the Mozambique Channel was being closely monitored. As of 4 April it was expected to reach the Mozambican coast between 5 - 6 April in the area of southern Nampula province and northern Zambezia province (Moma district). WFP has over 1,000 tons of food commodities in Nampula city and another 500 tons are expected shortly in Quelimane to bring existing stocks to over 600 tons. The Buffalo is on standby for use in northern Mozambique if necessary.
1.2 Some new localised flooding affected road access as heavy but scattered showers hit the central and southern region of the country. Deliveries from Beira to the southern region by road were delayed for several days. WFP and partners have already begun to identify access roads to be rehabilitated using food-for work schemes.
1.3 There are now over 150 distribution points for some 570,000 people being supplied with WFP food and non-food commodities. Assessments are still under way. Several new locations needing relief were identified for delivery of food and non-food items during the week.
1.4 Over 1,000 tons of WFP commodities were delivered during the week by air, boat and road to the five affected provinces of southern and central Mozambique. Approximately 53 percent of these commodities were delivered by road, and 40 percent by air, the rest being transported by boat. WFP has delivered over 6,100 tons of food since the beginning of the flood response.
1.5 Air capacity was further diminished by the continued departure of military forces. Current air capacity stands at 34 aircraft, 11 fixed wing aeroplanes and 23 helicopters. Commercial aircraft funded through WFP and USAID are now operational. Out of the total of 34 aircraft, 24 are being funded through WFP and 5 through USAID. The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) has four helicopter and two fixed wing planes which are amongst the 24 being funded by WFP. The remaining 5 aircraft belong to the Malawi, Portuguese and Spanish air forces. Ten helicopters and two fixed wing aircraft operated out of Beira serving the central region, while the rest of the air assets operated out of Maputo.
1.6 WFP is working in close collaboration with NGO partners and the Ministry of Agriculture to position buffer stock in areas where seed distribution is beginning as a protection against seeds being used for feeding rather than planting.
E. NORTH CAUCAUSUS
1. WFP OPERATION FOR INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (Information based on WFP North Caucasus Weekly Brief of 4 April 2000)
1.1 The WFP Emergency Operation for the North Caucasus (EMOP 6197) aims at providing basic food rations to internally displaced Chechens in Ingushetia until 30 June 2000. The operation is incorporated in the UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for the Northern Caucasus that was launched on 15 March. A total of 11,800 tons of food is required under the EMOP; the total cost to WFP of the EMOP is USD 6.7 million.
1.2 It is estimated that there are 185,000 internally displaced persons from Chechnya in Ingushetia, based on Danish Refugee Council (DRC) registration data of 21 March. WFP is planning to reach up to 150,000 displaced persons with food aid. Current distributions are reaching 140,000 persons. Other displaced are receiving assistance from alternative sources such as Islamic Relief and ICRC. The basic food rations received by the IDPs are supplemented with food commodities donated by NGOs and philanthropic institutions. About 75 percent of the IDPs in Ingushetia are living with host families. The host families of the IDPs are receiving food and other assistance from UNHCR.
1.3 Implementation Arrangements and Coordination
a) WFP arranges the delivery of food commodities to the extended delivery point (EDP) of Vladikavkaz in North Ossetia. At Vladikavkaz the commodities are taken over by the Russian Ministry for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM). EMERCOM arranges for the customs clearance, storage and transportation of these commodities to three intermediate storage points in Ingushetia (Nazran, Sleptsovskaya and Malgobek), where these are handed over to the Danish Refugee Council (DRC).
b) DRC stores the commodities in their warehouses at the three intermediate storage points and arranges for their transportation to 56 final distribution points (FDPs). At FDPs the commodities are handed over to the local authorities for distribution to the entitled beneficiaries. DRC monitors the food distribution to the beneficiaries by the local authorities.
c) World Vision International (WVI) monitors the receipt and handling of food commodities by EMERCOM and their delivery to DRC. WVI also carries out spot checks of the WFP commodities with the DRC and their distribution to the beneficiaries.
d) WFP chairs a weekly food coordination meeting in Moscow. It is attended by representatives from UNHCR, ICRC, WVI and DRC along with other NGOs involved in food distribution (Islamic Relief, MSF, ACF, etc.). These meetings have proved useful to discuss and resolve food aid related policy issues. Operational issues are discussed in weekly meetings chaired by DRC in Nazran among UN agencies, Red Cross and NGOs.
1.4 Food distributions: As of 2 April 2000, a total of 4,482 tons of WFP food commodities had been delivered in the region, of which 2,541 tons have been distributed. Approximately 75 percent of the 140,000 current beneficiaries are women and children.
a) Security assessments inside Chechnya are planned to begin this week. WFP and the other agencies active in the North Caucasus are meeting in Moscow to decide how, when and through whom humanitarian assistance operations will be organized in Chechnya. Among the modalities being discussed are resettlement packages for returnees, resumption of convoys and commencement of assistance operations in areas in the north and near the Ingushetia border.
b) The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson is currently in Moscow, following a visit to Chechnya. She has expressed her deep concern that travel and logistic restrictions imposed by Russian authorities in Chechnya may severely limit the ability of humanitarian agencies to assist the most vulnerable.
Note: all tonnage figures in this report refer to metric tons
(End WFP Emergency Report No. 14 of 2000 - April 7, 2000)