During November and December, humanitarian conditions varied markedly between locations. In areas accessible to humanitarian agencies, the status of approximately two million vulnerable persons continued to improve as a result of integrated and targeted programmes in food assistance, nutrition, health, non-food items and water and sanitation. In return sites where basic conditions were not in place, however, hundreds of thousands of persons became increasingly vulnerable. The onset of seasonal rains severely affected operations, cutting-off approximately 250,000 persons who had been receiving assistance. The status of these populations is expected to deteriorate sharply in coming months and may become critical unless access can be re-established. In addition, approximately 200,000 persons living in remote locations have still not been reached. Agencies estimate that a significant proportion of these people are likely to require assistance.
Resettlement and Return
During November and December, resettlement and return movements slowed significantly as a result of seasonal rains. During the reporting period, approximately 37,000 internally displaced persons (IDP) returned to their areas of origin under organised plans in the provinces of Bengo, Bié, Huambo, Huíla, Malanje and Moxico. An undetermined number spontaneously returned to points of origin, with the largest return movements occurring in the provinces of Benguela, Kuanza Norte, Kuanza Sul, Huíla and Malanje.
- In Bengo Province, approximately 1,500 IDPs living in Cambambe II were relocated to their areas of origin in the municipalities of Bula-Atumba, Caxito, Nambuangongo, Pango Aluquém and Quibaxe. In late November, provincial authorities announced that the majority of displaced populations living in the province had returned to points of origin.
- In Benguela Province, spontaneous return movements occurred from the municipal centres of Balombo, Bocoio, Caimbambo, Cubal and Ganda and from Culango in Lobito Municipality. The majority of IDPs returned without support from local authorities to areas where basic social services were inadequate.
- In Bié Province, approximately 27,000 IDPs were relocated to areas of origin within the province. Poor road conditions and mine infestation prevented humanitarian organisations from providing humanitarian assistance to 50 percent of returnees.
- In Kuanza Norte Province, spontaneous return movements were reported in several municipalities. The number of returnees receiving assistance from humanitarian organisations increased from 14,000 to 28,000 in the municipalities of Bolongongo, Camabatela, Quiculungo and Samba Cajú.
- In Kuanza Sul Province, spontaneous return movements were reported in several municipalities. Following a Rapid Assessment of Critical Needs in late October, partners began registration in Pambangala in Cassongue Municipality. By the end of December, approximately 17,000 persons, the majority from Waku Kungo, had been registered.
- In Huambo Province, an unconfirmed number of IDPs returning from the provinces of Benguela, Bié and Namibe were accommodated at the Acumol transit centre and relocated to areas of origin within the province. Mine infestation and poor road conditions forced humanitarian organisations to reduce or temporarily suspend operations in areas with concentrations of returnees including Bailundo, Huambo, Katchiungo, Longonjo, Mungo and Tchikala Tcholohanga Municipalities.
- In Huíla Province, approximately 5,500 IDPs living in IDP camps in Matala were transported to areas of origin in the municipalities of Chicomba and Jamba. In addition, spontaneous return movements were reported in several municipalities. In a number of areas, including Kutenda in Chicomba Municipality and Vicungo in Kuvango Municipality, populations were highly vulnerable due to the absence of basic social services and lack of access.
- In Lunda Sul Province, approximately 850 Angolan refugees returning from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were registered in Saurimo. After initially resettling in Muconda where they were unable to establish sustainable livelihoods, the majority moved to Saurimo.
- In Malanje Province, authorities supported the relocation to their areas of origin of 1,882 IDPs returning from Luanda. In addition, spontaneous return movements occurred in several municipalities inaccessible to humanitarian organisations, including Kambundi-Katembo, Kunda-Dia-Base, Luquembo, Marimba and Quirima.
- In Moxico Province, provincial authorities relocated 188 IDPs from Luena camps to areas of origin in the municipalities of Alto Zambeze and Luena. During the two-month period, more than 5,800 returnees spontaneously returned to areas of origin in the municipalities of Alto Zambeze, Luau and Lumbala Nguimbo.
- In Namibe Province, provincial authorities provided transport for approximately 700 IDPs returning to areas of origin in Huambo and Huíla Provinces.
By the end of the year, approximately 1.3 million IDPs had returned to areas of origin throughout the country, primarily in the provinces of Bengo, Bié, Huambo, Kuanza Sul and Malanje. Partners estimate that 70 percent returned without any form of assistance from local authorities or humanitarian organisations to areas where the pre-conditions specified in the Norms were not in place. These populations remain at risk due to limited access, lack of agricultural inputs and inadequate infrastructure. In late December, reports from local administrations and humanitarian organisations indicated that populations are in critical need in dozens of return locations in the provinces of Bengo, Benguela, Bié, Huambo, Huíla, Kuando Kubango, Kuanza Sul, Lunda Sul, Malanje and Moxico.
During November and December, more than 12,000 Angolan refugees spontaneously returned from neighbouring countries in the provinces of Moxico (5,800), Uíge (2,000) and Zaire (4,200). According to the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), approximately 85,000 refugees have returned to Angola since the beginning of the year. Approximately 60,000 have been registered by local authorities and humanitarian partners. In late December, as many as 400,000 Angolan refugees remained in neighbouring countries, primarily the DRC, Namibia, the Republic of Congo and Zambia.
No internal displacement was reported during November and December, although some populations, particularly in Mavinga in Kuando Kubango Province, continued to seek assistance in areas where humanitarian operations were underway. According to the Government, more than 2.8 million people were still displaced in Angola at the end of the year. Of this number, 800,000 people have been confirmed by humanitarian partners for assistance. Approximately 290,000 IDPs continue to live in camps and transit centres. Provinces with the largest concentrations of IDPs include Bié, Huíla, Huambo, Kuando Kubango and Kuanza Sul.
Between November and December, the number of ex-combatants and family members registered for humanitarian assistance in the gathering areas decreased from 464,000 to 425,000 people. During the same period, humanitarian agencies delivered more than 9,500 metric tons of food to these sites.
The humanitarian situation remained stable during the period in gathering areas accessible to humanitarian agencies. At a number of sites, however, including Fazenda Santa Cruz (Bengo Province), Gamba I, II and Ndele (Bié Province), Chiteta I, II, Lunge and Sambo (Huambo Province), Galangue I, II and III (Huila Province), Cambale and Menga (Kuanza Sul), Ngumbi (Lunda Norte), Damba and Ngangassol (Malanje Province) and Lucusse (Moxico Province), poor road conditions and mine infestation hampered the delivery of assistance, jeopardising efforts to stabilise populations.
In mid October, Government authorities announced that major efforts would be made to close gathering areas by the end of the year to ensure that return movements occurred prior to, or, during the planting season. According to information provided by the Government, 45,380 ex-combatants and family members were relocated from 30 gathering areas between November and December and approximately 3,700 people spontaneously returned to areas of origin. By the end of December, all populations in Cafima in Cunene Province and Amboiva in Kuanza Sul Province had been relocated. The most significant return movements of demobilised soldiers were registered in the provinces of Benguela, Bié, Huambo, Huíla and Kuanza Sul.
By late December, the majority of IDPs residing in old warehouses and abandoned buildings had returned to their areas of origin. In an effort to facilitate the return and resettlement of populations living in the gathering areas, the Government established new transit centres in provincial and municipal centres for populations en route to areas of origin. In a number of locations, returning populations were forced to find shelter in old warehouses and abandoned buildings, often with limited access to appropriate water and sanitation facilities.
- In Benguela Province, local authorities established two transit centres in the municipalities of Benguela and Cubal to accommodate ex-combatants and their families returning to their areas of origin.
- In Bié Province, an unconfirmed number of displaced persons, ex-combatants and family members remained at transit centres in Cangalo and Cunje, awaiting transport to areas of origin. Local authorities established a third transit centre in Cunje to accommodate ex-combatants and family members from the gathering areas of Gamba I, Gamba II and Ndele en route to other provinces.
- In Huambo Province, more than 1,900 persons from gathering areas in Huambo, Bengo and Benguela Provinces continued to live in sub-standard conditions at the Acumol centre, awaiting resettlement kits, reinstallation payments and transport to their areas of origin. Populations in the centre urgently required shelter, food and medical assistance.
- In Huíla Province, local authorities established two transit centres in Hoque near Lubango and in Caconda to support the transport of displaced persons and demobilised personnel to areas of origin. During November, approximately 640 ex-combatants and family members were accommodated at the Hoque transit centre, where shelter conditions were inadequate. By the end of December, 200 IDPs remained at the transit centre in Caconda and were in urgent need of food assistance, clothes and blankets.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, approximately 135 ex-combatants and family members remained at the transit centre in Menongue in late December. In Cuito Cuanavale, a transit centre was established to accommodate ex-combatants and families from Capembe and Matungo gathering areas. Populations in the centre required shelter and adequate water and sanitation.
- In Kuanza Norte Province, the resettlement site in Sassa near Ndalatando was turned into a transit centre for demobilised personnel coming from other provinces. During November, 94 ex-combatants and their families were hosted at the centre.
- In Lunda Sul Province, local authorities established transit centres for IDPs, ex-combatants and family members near Saurimo. Approximately 200 people remained at the centre in mid December.
- In Malanje Province, local authorities established a transit centre for IDPs, ex-combatants and family members returning from other provinces. By the end of December, 134 IDPs en route to areas of origin in Caombo, Marimba and Massango remained at the centre.
- In Moxico Province, reception facilities were urgently required in Cazombo, Luau and Lumbala Nguimbo to accommodate populations returning to areas of origin. In Cazombo, 600 ex-combatants and family members from Calala gathering area were forced to live in sub-standard conditions in abandoned buildings, awaiting transport to areas of origin. In Luau, an unconfirmed number of returnee populations remained in abandoned buildings and warehouses.
- In Uíge Province, the resettlement site in Kituma was turned into a transit centre for demobilised personnel returning to points of origin. In late December, 762 ex-combatants and family members from the gathering areas of Madimba, Mimbota, Mussabo and Uamba remained at the centre, awaiting resettlement benefits.
During November and December, the UN Security Unit led approximately 100 Level I security assessments in seven provinces, including Benguela, Bié, Huíla, Kuando Kubango, Kuanza Sul, Lunda Sul and Uíge. As a result, 42 areas and 30 access roads were cleared for operations.
Despite these achievements, access reduced markedly during November and December due to seasonal rains and mine incidents. By late December, 12 operational areas had become isolated, cutting-off approximately 250,000 beneficiaries from humanitarian assistance.
At least 14 mine incidents occurred on roads used by humanitarian partners in Bié, Huambo, Huíla, Kuando Kubango, Kuanza Norte, Kuanza Sul and Malanje Provinces, resulting in the reduction or temporary suspension of operations.
Poor road conditions hampered the delivery of assistance in many areas in the provinces of Bengo, Benguela, Bié, Huambo, Kuanza Norte, Kuanza Sul, Malanje, Moxico and Uíge.
- In Bengo Province, poor road conditions delayed the delivery of food assistance to Fazenda Santa Cruz gathering area and prevented humanitarian partners from launching operations in Nambuangongo Municipality.
- In Benguela Province, over 10,000 returnees may become inaccessible for humanitarian assistance due to poor road conditions in the municipalities of Caimbambo, Cubal and Ganda. An additional 100,000 beneficiaries in the municipalities of Baía Farta, Benguela, Caimbambo, Cubal and Ganda may be cut-off unless the bridge over the Cavaco River is permanently repaired.
- In Bié Province, poor road conditions prevented humanitarian partners from launching new operations in Mumbué, Mutumbo and Soma Cuanza in Chitembo Municipality and Dando and Caieie in Nharea Municipality.
- In Huambo Province, the collapse of several bridges severely affected operations in the municipalities of Bailundo and Mungo.
- In Kuanza Norte Province, over 12,000 returnees may become inaccessible due to poor road conditions in the municipalities of Bolongongo, Quiculongo and Samba Cajú.
- In Kuanza Sul Province, poor road conditions hampered the delivery of food assistance to the Cambale gathering area near Mussende.
- In Malanje, poor road conditions delayed the delivery of food assistance to the Ngangassol gathering area. The Ngumbi gathering area in Lunda Norte was also cut-off due to a damaged bridge over the Lui River.
- In Moxico Province, flooding on access roads hindered humanitarian operations in Lucusse and in Lumege Municipality.
- In Uíge Province, poor conditions on the main trunk road from Luanda hampered transport of humanitarian supplies.
Mine contamination continued to seriously impede the delivery of humanitarian assistance and delayed programmes aimed at promoting agricultural production and resettlement. Following a series of incidents on roads used by humanitarian partners, mine action organisations prioritised clearance on major roads and access routes to gathering areas and resettlement and return sites. Priority was also given to securing access to areas with critical needs.
- In Huambo Province, an emergency demining operation was launched following a mine incident in November that killed seven civilians and wounded 13 on the road Huambo - Cruzeiro - Sambo. Completion of the operation is pending the arrival of specialised equipment from outside the country.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, following a series of mine incidents in Mavinga town and surrounding areas, an emergency demining operation was launched to clear 20,000 square metres of mined ground in priority sites in the municipal centre.
- In Malanje Province, partners undertook the mechanical demining of 17 km of road between Malanje City and Cambondo, following two mine incidents on the road to Caculama on 27 September and 24 December.
The main conclusions of the vulnerability assessment, conducted in 220 locations in 11 provinces and covering the May - October period, were presented in December. According to information collected during the exercise, approximately 1.8 million people currently require food assistance to survive and between 2.1 and 2.4 million Angolans will be food insecure until the next harvest in April 2003. The highest concentrations of food insecure populations are in Bié and Huambo Provinces. Forty-three percent of the locations assessed, particularly in the northern and central regions of the country, are at moderate or high risk of food insecurity. The assessment also found that vulnerable residents in newly accessible areas, new IDPs, returnees and demobilised soldiers and their families who did not have access to agricultural inputs for the current agricultural campaign are at the highest risk of food insecurity.
Between November and December, WFP planned to distribute 50,200 MTs of food assistance to an average of 1,663,122 beneficiaries per month. This number decreased from October due to the conclusion of seasonal seed protection distributions and pre-school feeding programmes. WFP estimated that 400,000 food insecure people could not be reached due to logistical constraints. In addition to WFP, ICRC provided food assistance to 68,000 IDPs and returnees in Huambo Province and German Agro Action to 60,000 returnees in the provinces of Bengo and Kuanza Sul.
2002 - 2003 Agricultural Campaign
During November and December, more than 30 humanitarian organisations completed distributions of seeds and tools to 595,000 families. Despite these efforts, tens of thousands of families in newly accessible and gathering areas and return and resettlement sites did not receive sufficient quantities of seeds and tools for the agricultural campaign. The most critical gaps in seed and tool coverage were reported in the provinces of Bengo, Benguela, Cunene, Huíla, Kuando Kubango, Kuanza Sul, Moxico and Uíge.
Rainfall was regular or abundant in most locations. In some areas, including Bocoio in Benguela Province, Casseque and Ekunha in Huambo Province and Luena in Moxico Province, crops were damaged by heavy rains or hailstorms. In other areas, including Cambambe in Kuanza Norte Province and Calandula Province, irregular rains are likely to affect crop development.
Morbidity and Mortality
Morbidity and mortality rates remain high, particularly in newly accessible or remote locations where populations do not have regular access to basic health care services, potable water and appropriate sanitation. During the reporting period, cases of malaria, diarrhoea and respiratory infections increased as a result of seasonal rains. Vaccine preventable diseases continued to be reported, particularly in previously inaccessible areas where vaccination programmes were either infrequent or non-existent. Outbreaks of measles and meningitis were recorded in the provinces of Huíla, Kuanza Norte, Lunda Sul and Malanje.
- In Huíla Province, vaccination coverage was strengthened, helping to curb the spread of measles and meningitis in the municipalities of Caconda, Chipindo, Jamba and Kuvango. In Chicomba Municipality, populations were at high risk due to a lack of basic health services and insufficient quantities of essential drugs.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, results from a survey conducted in November in Mavinga and nearby areas indicated that mortality rates remained at emergency levels. Crude mortality rates were recorded at 1.4 and 1 per 10,000 persons per day in Mavinga and the gathering areas, respectively, and under-five mortality rates were recorded at 3.4 and 2.3 per 10,000 children per day. Cases of bloody diarrhoea continued to be reported as result of poor water quality. During the two-month period, between 30 and 40 persons were admitted each week in the isolation unit of the local health centre.
- In Kuanza Norte, an outbreak of measles was reported in Samba Cajú Municipality during December. In response, health authorities developed plans to strengthen epidemiological surveillance and immunisation activities.
- In Kuanza Sul Province, mortality rates returned to acceptable levels in Kabuta in Libolo Municipality after interventions helped curb an epidemic of bloody diarrhoea that caused 22 deaths during October.
- In Lunda Sul Province, outbreaks of measles were reported in the municipalities of Cacolo and Dala. In response, partners conducted a vaccination campaign in November in Alto Chicapa and Cacolo in Cacolo Municipality, reaching approximately 6,750 children between six months and 15 years of age.
- In Malanje Province, measles outbreaks were reported in the inaccessible municipalities of Luquembo and Quirima. In response, humanitarian partners conducted a vaccination campaign in the municipalities of Kambundi-Katembo and Luquembo, reaching 7,000 children. Provincial health authorities also sent a vaccination team by helicopter to Quirima. A survey conducted in Lombe and Malanje indicated a decrease in mortality rates in relation to previous surveys. In Lombe, under-five and crude mortality rates were recorded at 1.6 and 0.3 deaths per 10,000 persons per day, respectively. In Malanje, under-five and crude mortality rates were recorded at 1.2 and 0.24 deaths per 10,000 persons.
- In Uíge Province, high levels of morbidity were reported in Vale do Loge in Ambuila Municipality, linked to poor water and sanitation conditions and lack of access to basic health services.
In early November, acute levels of malnutrition were reported in at least 14 locations in the provinces of Bié, Huambo, Kuanza Sul and Kuando Kubango. In a number of areas, including Cuemba in Bié Province and Cabuta and Pambangala in Kuanza Sul Province, populations were stabilised through food distributions and targeted health and nutrition programmes. In other areas, including Bailundo, Chinhama, Katchiungo, Luvemba and Mungo in Huambo Province, humanitarian operations were reduced or temporarily suspended due to mine infestation and poor road conditions and the status of populations reportedly deteriorated. By the end of December, high levels of acute malnutrition were reported in at least 12 locations, including Chitembo (Bié Province), Bailundo, Chinhama, Galanga, Katchiungo, Kumbira, Londuimbali, Luvemba, Mungo and Tchindjenje (Huambo Province), Mavinga (Kuando Kubango Province) and Cacolo (Lunda Sul).
- In Benguela Province, the number of children in the therapeutic feeding centre in Benguela City decreased due to return movements. In Bocoio, routine nutritional screenings indicated a decrease in the number of children requiring nutritional support. In Cubal Municipality, nutritional screenings conducted during November among 2,613 children in seven resettlement sites indicated global malnutrition rates among under-five children between 5.7 and 17.8 percent and severe malnutrition rates averaging 0.8 percent. Malnutrition rates are expected to increase in many return locations sites due to lack of access, late distribution of agricultural inputs and inadequate rainfall.
- In Bié Province, attendance at feeding centres in Cunje, Camacupa, Cuemba, Gamba I and II and Kuito decreased. As result, the supplementary feeding centre in Gamba I and II was closed. In Chitembo, attendance at the supplementary feeding centre increased. The nutrition situation is expected to deteriorate in many of the province's return sites due to limited access during the rainy season and inadequate social services.
- In Huambo Province, the number of children in nutritional centres in Caála and Ekunha decreased. The therapeutic feeding centre in Cruzeiro, however, continued to register malnourished persons from the municipalities of Katchiungo and Tchicala Tcholohanga, indicating high malnutrition levels in these areas. Alarming levels of malnutrition were reported in several locations in the municipalities of Bailundo, Londuimbali, Mungo and Tchindjenje as a result of limited access and inadequate social services.
- In Huíla Province, humanitarian partners reported cases of severe and moderate malnutrition among returnee populations in Chicomba. High levels of malnutrition were suspected in Kutenda Commune, which remained inaccessible to humanitarian organisations.
- In Kuando Kubango Province, a nutritional survey among 900 children in Mavinga indicated a marked improvement in the nutrition situation. Global malnutrition rates in Mavinga and the gathering areas were recorded at 8.4 and six percent, respectively, and severe malnutrition rates at 2.6 and 1.8 percent. Levels of malnutrition were higher in the barrios and IDP camps, due to recent arrivals from areas that are still inaccessible to humanitarian partners.
- In Kuanza Sul Province, the nutrition situation in Pambangala in Cassongue Municipality improved as a result of food assistance and nutrition programmes in the nearby Menga gathering area.
- In Lunda Sul Province, malnutrition was found in several locations in Cacolo Municipality. In November, nutritional screenings conducted among 136 children during a measles vaccination campaign in Alto Chicapa indicated that six children were severely and 44 moderately malnourished. In Cacolo, a similar nutritional screening conducted among 466 children found that 55 were severely malnourished and 106 moderately malnourished.
- In Malanje Province, humanitarian partners conducted nutritional surveys in Lombe in Cacuso Municipality and Malanje between 28 November and 1 December. Survey results indicated that the nutritional situation is improving. Global malnutrition rates in Lombe and Malanje were 5.4 and 2.6 percent and severe malnutrition rates were 1.4 and 0.8 percent, respectively. Attendance rates at feeding centres continued to decrease, resulting in the hand-over of the therapeutic feeding centre in Malanje to local authorities and the closure of supplementary feeding centres in Calandula and Damba and Ngangassol gathering areas.
- In Moxico Province, admissions at the therapeutic and supplementary feeding centres in Luena decreased, resulting in the hand-over of a therapeutic feeding centre to local authorities and the closure of a supplementary feeding centre. In Luau, following a MUAC screening among 1,486 children that found moderate and severe malnutrition rates of eight percent and 0.4 percent, respectively, a supplementary feeding programme was launched. In Alto Zambeze Municipality, nutritional screenings in the communes of Caianda, Cavungo and Lóvua at the beginning of November found no severe malnutrition. A rapid food needs assessment in Cazombo found no severe malnutrition.
- In Uíge Province, routine nutritional screenings in Negage Municipality indicated that the nutritional situation remained stable, with global and severe malnutrition rates recorded at 5.4 and 1 percent, respectively. In Uamba gathering area, results from a nutritional survey conducted in October indicated significant improvements in malnutrition levels, leading to a closure of the supplementary feeding centre.
Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance
2003 Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal
The 2003 Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Angola, which was drafted in consultation with partners and beneficiaries in September and October, was launched on 20 November in the Netherlands and on 26 November in Luanda. The Appeal will serve as an interim funding mechanism aimed at meeting critical needs in a timely and effective fashion and laying the groundwork for future development until additional frameworks are in place. UN Agencies and NGOs are requesting approximately US$ 386 million for 166 projects. At the end of December, pledges and contributions covering 62 percent of the 2002 Consolidated Appeal had been received.
Humanitarian Coordination Group
The second Humanitarian Coordination Group (HCG) meeting this year was held on 12 December and co-chaired by the Minister of Social Affairs and Reinsertion and the United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator. Donors, Vice-Ministers and key staff from relevant Government ministries, the heads of UN Agencies and designated national and international NGO representatives were present.
Repatriation of Angolan Refugees
On 28 November, tripartite agreements for the repatriation of Angolan refugees from Namibia and Zambia were signed in Luanda between Angola, Namibia, Zambia and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. A similar agreement was signed in Kinshasa on 9 December between Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and UNHCR. The agreements set the legal framework for the repatriation of approximately 170,000 Angolan refugees in the DRC, Namibia and Zambia during 2003.
National Birth Registration Campaign
Between 19 and 21 November, the Ministry of Justice convened a workshop on the national birth registration campaign. Participants included the Provincial Delegates of Justice and Heads of Provincial Registrars' Offices from 18 provinces and churches and NGO representatives. The aim of the workshop was to assess national birth registration activities launched in August 2001 and provide recommendations for improving civil registration activities when the campaign ends on 31 December 2002.
From 16 to 18 December, representatives from six Government ministries, churches and NGOs attended a national workshop on child protection organised by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Reintegration. The aim of the workshop was to assess the national child protection strategy in gathering areas and newly accessible locations adopted by the Government in April 2002 and provide recommendations to strengthen child protection activities during the demobilisation and reintegration process.
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