ACT Appeal Angola Relief & Rehabilitation - AFAO-01


Appeal Target : US$ 2,338,514
Balance Requested from ACT Network US$ 1,643,104

Geneva, 10 March 2000

Dear Colleagues,

Since the collapse of the Lusaka Peace Agreement on Angola, in mid 1998 and the withdrawal of the UN peacekeeping force along with the closure of the UN verification mission in February 1999, the country has returned to a state of full war. Military encounters between the government forces and UNITA forces have left massive destruction of property and infrastructure with thousands of people fleeing their homes and clustered in IDP camps without enough food, water, shelter and medicines. Over 3 million people are estimated internally displaced (IDPs) and are mostly camped in government controlled areas. Towards the end of 1999 the World Food Program (WFP) estimated that over 200 people were dying everyday from starvation and hunger related diseases. Almost all road communications from the provinces to the capital were cut-off due to military operations and banditry. Bridges linking provinces, municipalities and communes were destroyed and roads and agricultural fields re-mined.

The Lutheran World Service, Department of World Service (LWF/DWS) intends to implement major emergency responses to a target population of 125,500 people in Lunda Sul, and Moxico Provinces. The proposed assistance comprises the following components:

  • Distribution of Food and Non-Food Items.
  • Shelter, setting up temporary camps for IDPs
  • Health, Water & Sanitation
  • Small scale agricultural activities
  • Training local government, and church staff in management of emergency relief delivery.

Summary of Appeal Targets, Pledges/Contributions Received and Balance Requested

Total Appeal Target
Less: Pledges/Contr. Recd.
- Cash
- In-Kind
Balance Requested from ACT Network

The implementation period is 12 months, March 2000 to February 2001.

Please kindly send your contributions to the ACT bank account and inform this office of all pledges/contributions and transfers, including funds sent direct to the implementers. Please note the Pledge Form is no longer attached with the Appeal.

Account Number - 102539/0.01.061 (USD)
Account Name: ACT - Action by Churches Together
Banque Edouard Constant
Cours de Rive 11
Case postale 3754
1211 Genève 3

We would appreciate being informed of any intent to submit applications for EU, USAID and/or any back door funding and the subsequent results. We thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.

ACT Web Site address:

Ms. Geneviève Jacques
WCC/Cluster on Relations
Thor-Arne Prois
ACT Coordinator
Rev. Rudolf Hinz
LWF/World Service

ACT is a worldwide network of churches and related agencies meeting human need through coordinated emergency response.

The ACT Coordinating Office is based with the World Council of Churches (WCC) and the Lutheran World Federation (LWF) in Switzerland.


The Lutheran World Federation/Department for World Service (LWF/DWS)


The Lutheran World Federation/Department of World Service’s (LWF/DWS) involvement in Angola dates back to 1985, when it initiated an emergency relief program in Moxico province for displaced people fleeing from the civil war. The program focused primarily on providing assistance to internally displaced people (IDPs), returning refugees and demobilized soldiers in order to provide relief assistance to populations displaced by war and civil strife, and to facilitate their resettlement and reintegration into their home communities when security and political conditions prevailed.

Over the past years, LWF/DWS Angola has played a key role with its work in the "forgotten" eastern region of Angola. It has been one of the few agencies working in UNITA-controlled areas of these provinces. Over the years, LWF/DWS has developed good working relationships with UNITA, the Government, international agencies and NGOs, as well as with local churches working in the region. It has forged strong links with the communities themselves, and developed a strong cadre of local staff by which to implement its emergency and overall country program.


Angola has for several years suffered from wars: the war of independence from 1963 to 1974; the post independence war of 1974 to 1991; the war following the first multi-party elections, from 1992 to 1994, and the current one which enfolded after the Lusaka Peace Accord collapsed. These wars have mainly pitted two former liberation movements, the MPLA and UNITA, in a conflict that has left an estimated one million dead, hundreds of thousands fleeing into neighboring countries and millions of people internally displaced. The latest war is probably the most destructive in its scope, and it is estimated by the U.N. that the cost of destruction to economic, administrative and social infrastructure amounts to billions of dollars. Cost relating to effects on human resources is not estimable. The only part of the country that has escaped total damage is the narrow coastal strip. In spite of this, not much effort has gone into maintaining the cities and infrastructure of this coastal strip, as most of the country’s resources have been used in the civil war.

These developments have led to the tenuous situation today, whereby Angolan refugees in neighboring countries are not coming back to Angola as had been planned under the Lusaka Peace Accord, the refugees citing political and military instability. Those who returned spontaneously during the "no-peace, no-war" period (1996-1997) under the Lusaka Accord, went back into Zambia, DRC and Namibia, seeking refuge when the war re-started in mid 1998. The war has also created large scale new movements of people towards Government controlled areas, estimated at a total of 3 million internally displaced all over the country.

With the virtual collapse of the Lusaka Protocol in the late 1998, full scale war broke out once again between the government and UNITA, causing large scale population movements and shattered social infrastructure even further. The recent fighting has been more intense than any other time, and weaponry/armament used more sophisticated and advanced than elsewhere in Africa.

The situation has grown even more difficult as the resident population is not any more able to cultivate land due to increased fear for land mines and the constant risk of being abducted or ambushed. Food is becoming increasingly unavailable due to the very low circulation of goods as a result of major bridges being destroyed and roads being re-mined. Arable land in the safe areas is insufficient for maintaining the minimum subsistence agriculture for both the resident and the IDP population.

Due to the fast deteriorating situation and the poor donor response, the U.N. senior humanitarian coordinator in Angola, in July 1999, warned that the international community would soon face a new "human tragedy" if the Angolan crisis became another "forgotten emergency". He also warned that Angola is already facing a tragic humanitarian situation and that the tragedy of today will develop into a catastrophe unless necessary resources are made available.

The new caseload of IDPs is estimated at 95’437 in Moxico Province, and 30’110 in Lunda Sul Province, as confirmed by UCAH/OCHA by December 15, 1999. The total case load considered for this appeal, totals 125’547 persons, equivalent to 25’109 families, in the provinces of Moxico and Lunda Sul, where LWF/DWS will continue operations in the year 2000.

Out of this total caseload for the 2 provinces, LWF/DWS Angola has, so far, been able to assist 44’065 individuals (35%) with funds and resources obtained from LWF/DWS traditional donors, related agencies, ECHO (phase 1-2), UNHCR, UNICEF, NRC, and others while food components were provided by WFP through its implementing partners. LWF/DWS now intends to provide assistance to the remaining number of IDPs (16’293 families).

Date on which emergency occurred

The resurgence of the current war, which started in June 1998, is considered to be the worst ever and had, by December 1999, displaced an estimated number of 3 million people throughout the country. With an unaccounted number of refugees in and outside the IDP camps and uncertain figures of persons fleeing to neighboring countries.

The escalating state of insecurity brought about by the continued threat of shelling, re-mining and frequent incidents of local ambush and other forms of intimidation and harassment of the civil population, has resulted in large numbers of people moving towards the provincial capitals from areas until recently under control of the rebel movement.

Location of the Emergency

One of the major regions affected most by the latest phase of the Angolan conflict are the provinces of Moxico, Lunda Sul, and Lunda Norte in the east of the country. Although LWF/DWS has been working in all three provinces for many years, it has been decided to concentrate efforts in the provinces of Moxico and Lunda Sul : The RSPP mission in January 1999 and the resulting Country Program Strategy Document identifies Moxico province as a geographical priority area in the medium and long term. At the same time, however, ongoing commitments in Lunda Norte should be honored and preparedness to intervene in emergency situations maintained.

The substantial numbers of new and old internally displaced populations, are both in the camps and spontaneously settled around the provincial capitals. Large numbers of displaced people are expected to return to their area of origin once the Government has re-established the administration structures. The returnees will require assistance to restart their lives.

Due to its geographical location, Lunda Sul and Moxico Provinces, have, since colonial times, received less attention from the Government and donors than other parts of Angola.

Description of the Impact on Human Lives

The ongoing war and the intensity of the fighting has put incalculable suffering on the estimated 3 million IDPs. Due to the gravity of the situation, not only IDPs but the whole resident community is suffering. Practically all economic and productive activities have been brought to a halt. Basic social services are virtually non-existent, leading to frequent incidences of disease outbreaks including tuberculosis and other malnutrition related diseases. No medicines are available to combat these diseases. The educational system in the country is paralyzed and displaced children in particular have no access to education.

The general supply of food and foodstuff has affected the whole country except for the provinces in the coastal areas. Basic food items have become scarce and little available very expensive as supplies have to be transported by air from the capital. The whole situation therefore is life threatening to both IDPs and the resident population. The worst victims being, the unaccompanied children and orphans, the single mothers and the sick and handicapped.

Location of proposed emergency response

LWF/DWS intends to implement major emergency responses in Moxico, Saurimo, (Lunda Sul Province) as it is there where large concentrations of displaced populations are to be seen, especially in the towns of Nzaji and Saurimo which have remained under Government control. The emergency response can be implemented because LWF/DWS has an office in Luena, and it will work in partnership with the local churches, the provincial Government ministries (Ministry for Social Reintegration and assistance and Ministry of agriculture and rural development).

Statistics and figures on the Emergency

The figure of 125’547 representing the actual case loads in Saurimo and Luena is based on the December 1999 UCAH/OCHA fact sheet report. These are for IDPs who have actually arrived in areas under government control, and who are registered by Ministry for Social Reintegration and Assistance (MINARS) to qualify for receiving assistance. It has not been possible to verify numbers of IDPs in areas outside of government control but it is suspected that there are many more, either on their way to government areas, or hiding in the bush until such time as it is safe for them to move on.

Description of current security situation

Since the collapse of the Lusaka Peace Agreement, in mid 1998, and the withdrawal of the U.N. peacekeeping force and the closure of the U.N. verification mission in February 1999, the country has returned to a state of full scale war. During the last several months there has been a lot of military encounters and provinces like Malang, Huambo, Bie and Uige have been shelled from time to time. Almost all road communication from the provinces to the capital have been cut-off due to military operations and banditry action. Bridges linking provinces, municipalities and communes destroyed and roads and agricultural fields re-mined.

Due to this climate of total insecurity some humanitarian agencies have closed or limited their operations, concentrating activities around the relatively safe provincial capitals and municipalities. Large populations have fled towards the areas under government control, creating a tremendous social imbalance.



The overall goal is to assist internally displaced people whose lives have been disrupted by the resurgence of insecurity and the armed conflict in the Lunda Sul and Moxico provinces and to assist them returning to their home communities when it is safe to do so. Further, to assist the provincial government authorities in strengthening local capacity to manage and implement relief assistance.


To provide timely relief assistance to internally displaced people in the areas of LWF/DWS operations through distribution of basic goods and materials and provision of essential services to the internally displaced people. The distribution will be organized and controlled by LWF/DWS and services provided to beneficiaries registered by MINARS. LWF/DWS will use local MINARS staff and church workers for the distribution and its monitoring, and will liaise closely with local authorities and traditional leaders to monitor and evaluate the distribution.

To assist the local authorities in Saurimo, and Luena to establish sites for the settlement of the internally displaced people until such time it is safe for them to return home through - siting and setting up of settlement sites for new arrivals - working with IDPs to set up shelter, basic sanitation and water systems - working with IDPs to set up small garden plots and to cultivate crops in fields designated by the government to minimize dependence on outside food aid - promotion of community health through the teaching of proper sanitary and hygienic practices - provision of special assistance to vulnerable groups and provision of assistance for care and maintenance of the existing IDP camps.

To prepare the IDPs for their return to their home communities through educational activities with active participation of the beneficiaries - emphasizing principles of basic sanitation, the treatment of water - hygiene practices and promoting small scale agricultural activities and skills training to facilitate the resettlement and reintegration process.

To provide on the job training for local government, church and other workers in the management and implementation of emergency relief delivery and maintenance activities through working closely with MINARS staff, and workers from the local churches in providing relief assistance - collaborating with the provincial Vice Governor’s office for Social Affairs in order to enhance the office’s capacity to coordinate relief efforts in their respective provinces.


The presently known caseload, as confirmed by UCAH/OCHA totals 95,437 in Luena, Moxico and 30’110 in Saurimo, Lunda Sul. However, the provincial office of MINARS indicates higher figures of 78’110 individuals in Saurimo and 124’678 in Luena. Out of the total confirmed IDP caseload of 125’547 , LWF/DWS has so far been able to assist approximately 35% leaving 16’296 families or 81’480 individuals un-assisted and qualifying for assistance with basic family kits and other essential non-food items under this present ACT 2000 appeal.

The beneficiaries targeted mainly have a rural background, where farming is the major economic activity and source of livelihood. Fishing and other secondary occupations, mat weaving, carpentry, hunting, wood collection, are also practiced during the agriculture off-season. A minority are government municipal employees. In terms of gender and age group, the caseload comprises of 16% adult men, 19% adult women, 30% children and 36% female children.

Beneficiaries belong to 3 major ethnic groupings: Chokwe, Lundas, and Luvale. The said ethnic groupings have a very similar tradition, beliefs, cultures, family attachment and farming practices, making the caseload compatible and able to maintain good relationships while staying together in a crowded camp.

Criteria for selecting beneficiaries

The main criteria for selecting beneficiaries will be IDPs duly recognized and registered by the Government, through MINARS. LWF/DWS through local churches, the local authorities and traditional leaders will identify IDPs qualifying for assistance.

Number of beneficiaries

The above-cited IDPs will all receive assistance from LWF/DWS to serve their basic household needs including non-food items such as blankets/quilts, cooking sets, soap, buckets, seeds and tools, and shelter materials. They will also benefit from basic services such as sanitation, water, and health and hygiene education. They will receive assistance, as has been past practice, through family groups under the overall coordination of the provincial government and MINARS.


The initial assistance to be provided to IDPs consists of basic non-food items. A major focus of the intervention will be to assist the local government to plan and establish IDP sites in and around the centers, by transferring know-how on shelter and site techniques in camp situations and the importance of protecting the environment. IDPs will further receive materials for the construction of shelter, and will e advised on proper siting to assure proper air flow and to avoid unnecessary fire hazards.

LWF/DWS will provide necessary sanitation services through the construction of latrines and by teaching the people how to use them. In addition, setting up of water systems which will include pumps, water bladders, delivery points and shallow wells and ensure access to potable water and reduce risks of water borne diseases.

LWF/DWS community health staff will play a major role in promoting sanitary practices in the sites and in the households themselves. Agricultural workers will help the setting up of small gardens, and small scale crop activities to ensure availability of a variety of food.

It is expected that the local government and specialist NGOs will look after the curative health aspects of the sites. LWF/DWS will assist, if needed, in the construction of temporary clinics on site, and hand these over to the agency responsible for the health sector.

LWF/DWS’ community based, participatory approach in the actual implementation will ensure, that IDPs gain experience in various aspects that will facilitate their stay in the sites and make them more self sufficient by the time they return home, and have to resettle and reintegrate. LWF/DWS expects to be intimately linked with the future resettlement and reintegration process and therefore, the participatory approach is emphasized to forge a good working relationship and mutual trust with the beneficiaries.

The following basic material assistance is envisaged:

Kitchen sets, buckets, blankets, bars of soap, seed pack of maize, beans, and groundnuts as well as hoes. In addition, tents and plastic sheeting, construction tools, water systems equipment and medical kits.



Experienced staff is available at the sites and have been working with LWF/DWS over the past several years. An expatriate regional program coordinator, based in the regional office in Luena, will be responsible for overall management, implementation and reporting duties. The LWF/DWS headquarters in Luanda will provide support in matters of logistics and administrative and financial services. Seasoned field staff will be available for field logistics, site set-up, sanitation and community health activities, water services provision, and small-scale agriculture. More staff details are provided in the budget.

Project Support

LWF/DWS has currently 2 operational field offices in the region (Saurimo and Luena). Each area has staff housing, warehouse and garage space available and are equipped with light and heavy vehicles, HF radios, computers, and other essentials. The field offices are linked to LWF/DWS regional office in Luena (the provincial capital of Moxico) as well as Luanda by radio and weekly WFP passenger flights are available. Project reporting and finances are done at field level, and finalized in Luanda.

Transportation requirements

LWF/DWS has its own trucks (some purchased with prior ACT funding) and light duty vehicles for implementation and monitoring purposes. It is assumed that cargo flights will once again be made available cost-free from WFP and ECHO, at least during the year 2000 . About twenty five flights of between eight to ten metric tons capacity will be needed to deliver the material assistance referred to above.

Other requirements

The requirements for the targeted caseload are included in the budget and in the text of this appeal. Should the IDP caseload rise, additional requirements will be made known.

Pre-positioned Relief items

All items listed are ones that are needed and not presently pre-positioned in any of the project sites.


Procurement will be done regionally, most likely in South Africa, as required items are either not available in Angola, or are of poor quality and priced exorbitantly high.

Provision for implementation of the assistance program

In terms of implementation, the fact to be considered is that field activities are located in different areas. Though roads interconnect the areas, they are not usable at this moment due to prevailing insecurity. The most efficient and safest way of getting to project sites is by air, as the road option is precluded by newly laid mines and increasing banditry.

The material assistance will be provided at the sites, or if the sites are not ready, in safe areas determined by the provincial authorities and which have safe access. LWF/DWS project activities will be carried out by local staff, who live in the centres and know the area and people well. The communities are considered partners in the project. They will provide most of the labor and many of the skills for the implementation of project activities.


A site coordinator will be responsible for each site. He/she will report to the regional program coordinator based in Luena. The implementation, reporting and monitoring of assistance given will be the responsibility of each site coordinator under the overall supervision of the relief coordinator. Storekeepers, drivers, and sectoral staff, mainly from past LWF/DWS Angola projects, will assist the site coordinators in the implementation of the projects.

LWF/DWS finance department in Luanda, according to established procedures, will do financial reporting while site coordinators are versed with financial procedures at field level. The logistics unit in Luanda will provide procurement services and general logistics support.

Coordination between head office and the project sites will be facilitated by daily radio communications, periodic visits by the regional program coordinator stationed in Luena and by periodic visits by field staff to Luanda. The Luena regional office will gradually be strengthened, in order to have full administrative functions.

Monitoring procedures

The regional program coordinator and the site coordinators will do the project monitoring using LWF/DWS monitoring guidelines and environmental and shelter guidelines. Monthly field reports are the responsibility of the site coordinators. The regional program coordinator will amalgamate monthly field reports into one concise monthly report, indicating progress, and will submit to the Luanda head office. The monthly reports will be used as a tool for the site coordinators to help them evaluate the projects and their performance, and to make changes as required. All monthly reports to head office will include results of activities plus a narrative of problems encountered, how they were dealt with, and plans for the upcoming months. The project’s impact on the IDPs , the environment and the resident communities, will be analyzed on a monthly basis. The country representative will also visit the project areas at least once in every quarter of every six months to ensure that all planned activities are all in place and also to keep abreast of the situation in the areas.

Financial Management and controls

All financial monitoring, recording, and reporting will be done by LWF/DWS financial department based in Luanda. The established LWF financial system will naturally be employed. Luanda finance personnel will make periodic visits to the field offices to work with the staff on financial control and the updating and verification of expenditure reports, and train staff in stock audits and inventory control.


The implementation period for this appeal will be one year from March to February, 2000.

It is envisaged that material assistance will be supplied as soon as possible to the IDPs at designated safe areas, areas with safe access, or at established sites. Site set-up, water and sanitation systems, shelter construction will be prioritized in new camps. As this is underway, community sanitation, hygiene and health promotion will start. LWF/DWS with help from UCAH, ECHO and its own resources has already started assisting the IDPs and the local authorities with the present caseload.

The required care and maintenance of the existing camps in Luena, Moxico Province, and in Saurimo, Lunda Sul province will be provided to ensure that the minimum level for both sanitation, hygiene, health, water and others are in place and maintained.


LWF/DWS coordinates with many institutions, NGOs, Local groups, Government levels - a brief outline of such coordination mechanisms are described here.

Churches and local groups - a strong working relationship has been developed with the Alliance of Evangelical Churches of Angola, and with the Christian Council of Angola.

It has strong links with the Catholic and Adventist churches in all its activities designed to assist internally displaced people. Local groups - such as camp committees, youth and women groups are involved in the same activities related to assisting refugees and internally displaced . Church Action in Angola and LWF/DWS are in regular contact and are mutually sharing information and or tasks as needed.

Local authorities - LWF/DWS liaises closely with the local administration in all field areas. Trust has been build up over the years whether the local authority is government or UNITA.

LWF/DWS has been working directly with several major line ministries, such as MINARS (Ministry for Social Reintegration and Assistance, MINADER (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) and MINSA (Ministry of Health). Without support from these authorities, work would be very difficult indeed.

Further cooperation in assisting the refugees and IDPs exist with NGOs be it local (very few) or international, as well as excellent coordination with the various U.N. agencies exists and information is shared and meeting held at a regular basis.