ACT Appeal Angola: Post war relief & rehabilitation - AFAO-31


Appeal Target: US$ 4,395,464
Balance Requested from ACT Network: US$ 4,192,699

Geneva, 17 February 2003

Dear Colleagues,

The situation in Angola changed drastically when the rebel leader Jonas Savimbi was killed in February 2002. The war is now over and the assistance to Angola can be directed towards immediate rehabilitation and recovery. 3,2 million are displaced and need to return to their home areas and restart their lives. The same applies to 440,000 refugees in neighbouring countries and 464,000 ex UNITA soldiers and their families.

On 4 April, 2002, the warring parties agreed a cease-fire and a rapid demobilisation of the UNITA forces. Although nothing was prepared and many of the families entering the quartering camps were in a sorry state of sickness and starvation, the situation was stabilised with the help of the humanitarian community. The weapons were quickly decommissioned and final peace negotiations ended in November 2002. But the re-integration into society of the ex-UNITA soldiers and their families has not yet taken place and the reconciliation is still an unresolved issue.

In spite of humanitarian assistance provided after the cease-fire, the situation remains serious. 250,000 civilians require urgent assistance and more than 2 million Angolans are highly vulnerable and completely dependent on aid to survive.

ACT Implementing members in Angola, Lutheran World Federation / Department of World Service(LWF/DWS), Evangelical Reformed Church of Angola(IERA) and Evangelical Congregational Church in Angola (IECA) are proposing to assist over 100,000 people in the various provinces and districts where they have programs. The proposed assistance will be both in relief and rehabilitation assistance. The following are the activities proposed:


  • Distribution of relief items (Non Food Items) which will include kitchen sets, blankets, buckets, plastic sheeting and soap.
  • Rehabilitation of Basic Infrastructure in Return Areas
  • Distribution of seeds and tools
  • Rehabilitation of Schools and Health Centres
  • Mine awareness programs
  • Sensitisation on basic Human Rights and Peace and Reconciliation


  • Relief Items distribution
  • Infrastructure Rehabilitation (schools and health centers)
  • Health
  • Water and Sanitation


  • Relief Items distribution
  • Nutritional programs
  • Seeds and Tools (Agriculture)

In addition, Danchurchaid will carry out de-mining programs in the LWF operational areas to make the areas safe for rehabilitation programs.

Project Completion Date:

LWF - 31 December, 2003

DCA - 31 December, 2003

IERA - 31 December, 2003

IECA- 31 October, 2003

Summary of Appeal Targets, Pledges/Contributions Received and Balance Requested
ACT Comm. & Field Trips
Total Target US$
Total Appeal Targets
Less: Pledges/Contr. Recd
Balance Requested from ACT Network

Please kindly send your contributions to the following ACT bank account:

Account Number - 240-432629.60A (USD)
Account Name: ACT - Action by Churches Together
PO Box 2600
1211 Geneva 2

Please also inform the Finance Officer Jessie Kgoroeadira (direct tel. +4122/791.60.38, e-mail address of all pledges/contributions and transfers, including funds sent direct to the implementers, now that the Pledge Form is no longer attached to the Appeal.

We would appreciate being informed of any intent to submit applications for EU, USAID and/or other back donor funding and the subsequent results. We thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.

ACT Web Site address:

Thor-Arne Prois
Director, ACT


On 4 April 2002 a cease-fire was agreed and a rapid demobilisation of the UNITA forces. The combined effect of sanctions on UNITA's diamond trade, scorched earth tactics and ever more persistent pursuit by the Government forces had left both military and civilians exhausted and many died from starvation and disease.

With the help of the humanitarian community the situation was stabilised after some months. However, in October it was decided that the camps should be dissolved before the end of the year. But unfortunately the integration program of the World Bank has still not come into operation, except for cash payments to the soldiers.

The key issue is, however, the reconciliation between populations groups. There is genuine fear of retribution and exclusion. Various initiatives have been taken by the churches in particular to address this problem.

On a political level, it was agreed to finalise the negotiations interrupted in 1998 , when the war broke out again. The basis for the negotiations remained the Lusaka Peace Accord of 1994. But the situation had changed radically since then in that UNITA was now defeated. The peace negotiations , which involved the two parties, the UN and Portugal, Russia and the USA, have been finalised. In spite of their defeat, UNITA obtained positions in the Government of National Unity, as Governors and vice Governors and in local administrations as well as ambassadors posts that had been promised in the Lusaka Accord. The sanctions against UNITA have been lifted.

In the immediate aftermath of the cease-fire it was confirmed that a large part of the civil population, which had been inaccessible to humanitarian assistance during the war, was in acute need. This transpired from assessments made initially at 28 locations around the country. Twenty-four more assessments have been made since then.

Although a marked improvement has been noted in the areas, where humanitarian assistance has been provided, the majority of Angolans remain in a precarious situation.

Impact on human lives

The war has left a sinister legacy. 250,000 civilians are still estimated to require urgent assistance. More than 2 million Angolans are highly vulnerable and completely dependent on aid, particularly food, to survive. More than 600,000 urgently require survival items, including blankets, water containers and kitchen kits.

Sixty percent of the population is living below the poverty line. More than a quarter of the population is displaced or 3,2 million. 440,000 are refugees in neighbouring countries. Out of 173 countries Angola ranks 161 in the UNDP Human Development Index with average life expectancy at only 45 years.

In this situation Angola is faced with many challenges. After the demobilisation, the first priority is the return of the displaced population. Already 900,000 have returned. Another 1.77 million are expected to return in the 2003. However, many conditions have to be in place. Of those who have returned to their home villages, few have settled definitely. In most cases part of the families stayed behind and continued to receive assistance or had income from selling products in the cities or paid for work or services. In only 30% of the return municipalities minimal conditions have been fulfilled. This normally means that a state administration has been re-established. But in most cases there are no safe water, no schools and no medical services.

The main assistance that has been provided are seeds and tools that have been distributed to 600,000 returning families in order to reduce dependency and help them to self-sufficiency. But the returnees also lack basic domestic utensils and relief items.

The rehabilitation needs are formidable and progress is a precondition for the successful return of the displaced population. 40 % of the country-side remains inaccessible due to damaged infrastructures and extensive mine infestation. At least 73 bridges require construction, 105 need major repairs and 520 require minor rehabilitation in 13 provinces. In addition all provinces need urgent road rehabilitation.

In the health sector, most infrastructure in rural areas is missing. 40 municipal hospitals , 76 health centres and 364 health posts require rehabilitation or construction. In the water sector 152 water distribution systems, 563 hand pumps and 155 fountains need rehabilitation or construction. 150 wells and 100 springs need construction and protection.

Description of Current security situation

The main security issue is the mine risk. 227 locations have been cleared of 230 anti-personnel mines, 20 anti-tank mines and 6,077 unexploded ordnance. Still mine infestation is suspected in 50% of all return sites.

With limited resources available for mine clearing, it will take a long time before all mines are cleared. In the mean time it is necessary to inform and sensitise the population on how to cope with remaining mines.

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