AMOUNT: EUR 12 800 000 AMOUNT: EUR 12 800 000
The present Humanitarian Implementation Plan (HIP) was prepared on the basis of financing decision ECHO/WWD/BUD/2016/01000 (Worldwide Decision) and the related General Guidelines for Operational Priorities on Humanitarian Aid (Operational Priorities). The purpose of the HIP and its annex is to serve as a communication tool for ECHO's partners and to assist in the preparation of their proposals. The provisions of the Worldwide Decision and the General Conditions of the Agreement with the European Commission shall take precedence over the provisions in this document.
0. MAJOR CHANGES SINCE PREVIOUS VERSION OF THE HIP
April 2016 – Modification No. 1
Following the political orientation provided by Commissioner Stylianides to scale-up ECHO's financial support towards education in emergencies to reach the global target of 4 % and the additional contribution of EUR12 million granted by the budgetary authorities, an amount of EUR 800,000 has been added to the current HIP. This additional contribution will be used to support activities that enable safe access to quality education for boys and girls in ongoing conflicts, complex emergencies, other situations of violence and early recovery phases. Furthermore, it may support longer-term education activities in protracted crises and in refugee/IDP camps, as well as actions targeting transition to formal education systems.
In spite of the increased recognition of the important role that education may play for children and young people affected by crises, education in emergencies remains one of the least funded humanitarian sectors. For boys and girls affected by crises, safe access to education can be lifesaving, protecting them from external threats, giving them a sense of normalcy, teach them important life skills, strengthen their resilience and restore their hope for a better life. As protracted crises in the world are becoming more prominent there is a risk of creating a "lost generation" if there is not investment in education in emergency at an early stage.
The 2016 HIP for North Africa focuses largely on Algeria (Sahrawi refugees) and Libya with potential interventions in response to fall-out of these crises in other countries such as Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt, or in case these countries should be affected by natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods and droughts. If significant humanitarian gaps are identified the HIP budget will be amended accordingly. Any ECHO intervention related to Syrian refugees and other people of concern in detention centres in Egypt will be addressed through the Syria HIP.
1.1 – Algeria
For 40 years Morocco and the Polisario Front have vied for control over Western Sahara, a former Spanish territory. The Polisario claims to represent the aspirations of the Western Sahara inhabitants for independence, while Morocco's claim is based on historical reasons. Algeria maintains that the Sahrawis should determine the territory's future status themselves, and has allowed the set-up of 5 refugee camps in Tindouf, southern Algeria. Hostilities between Morocco and the Polisario Front ended in 1991, when a ceasefire brokered by the United Nations (UN) was implemented. In April 1991, UN Security Council Resolution 690 established the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) with the mandate to organise a referendum to allow the people of Western Sahara to choose between independence and integration with Morocco. To date, no agreement has been reached. Gathered in 5 main camps (Ausserd, Boujdour, Dakhla, Laayoune, and Smara) in the Sahara desert in south-western Algeria, the Sahrawi refugees are largely dependent on external humanitarian assistance with little prospect for self-reliance, as income generating activities are difficult to implement in the desert. ECHO's Integrated Analysis Framework for 2015- 2016 identified extreme humanitarian needs in the Sahrawi refugee camps located in Tindouf, south-western Algeria. The vulnerability of the population affected by the crisis is assessed to be very high. The Sahrawi crisis scored 0, the most severe level, in ECHO's Forgotten Crisis Assessment index in 2014/2015.
1.2 – Libya
Since the fall of Qaddafi’s regime in 2011, the authority of a central government has been contested. Libya’s three regions (Tripolitana in the west, Cyrenaica in the east and Fezzan in the south) are under the control of militias and factions and splinter non-state armed groups (NSAGs). On 24 August 2014, Islamist armed groups announced the reinstatement of Libya's previous parliament - the General National Congress (GNC), splitting Libya's already polarised political system into two separate bodies. In the meantime the House of Representatives (elected parliament) relocated to Tobrouk. On 11 July 2015, all parties, with exception of GNC representatives, initialled a political agreement. On 21 September 2015 UNSMIL announced the final version of the political agreement and invited all Libyan parties to vote and endorse the agreement to be followed by the formation of a Government of National Accord (GNA) by 20 October. To date, the political and security track of the negotiations continue, as parties have not yet reached an agreement. In the past year, the security situation in Libya has been highly volatile. Armed violence has affected the most densely populated areas. The conflict shows no signs of abating in urban locations such as Sirte, Derna and Benghazi. As a result, the country's economy has been severely affected. Humanitarian access is a concern as security risks for humanitarian workers are high. The growing presence of the Islamic State for Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) is also a threat. Humanitarian organizations have no access where ISIL and associated groups are present, thus making it difficult to assess needs in these areas. The conflict has been characterized by the complete disregard for International Humanitarian Law (IHL), gross violations of human rights and sectarian violence. Religious and ethnic minorities face a high risk of aggression from extremist groups.
Libya's history of mixed migration flows presents great challenges. The country has traditionally been both a final destination for economic migrants and a transit country for those attempting to reach Europe. According to most recent UN statistics1 , economic migrants, refugees and asylum seekers represent some 14% over the total Libyan population of 6.2 million. Continued lack of rule of law and poor border controls has given a free hand to smuggling networks, while the capacity of Libyan institutions to address it is extremely limited. In the current context, many migrants are caught up in the Libya conflict in a situation of high vulnerability. ECHO's Integrated Analysis Framework for 2015-2016 identified high humanitarian needs in Libya. With the impact of the conflict having escalated in 2014, the vulnerability of the population affected by the crisis is assessed to be high. In addition, the Libya crisis is considered a Forgotten Crisis, according to ECHO's Forgotten Crisis Assessment 2015.