Afghanistan + 24 more

WFP Emergency Report No. 47 of 2004

Situation Report
Originally published

(A) Highlights

(B) Middle East, Central Asia and Eastern Europe: (1) Afghanistan

(C) East and Central Africa: (1) Regional, (2) Burundi, (3) DR Congo, (4) Eritrea, (5) Ethiopia, (6) Rwanda, (7) Sudan, (8) Uganda

(D) West Africa: (1) Sahel Region, (2) Chad, (3) Cote d'Ivoire, (4) Guinea, (5) Liberia, (6) Sierra Leone

(E) Southern Africa: (1) Regional, (2) Angola, (3) Lesotho, (4) Malawi, (5) Mozambique

(F) Asia: (1) Bangladesh, (2) Cambodia, (3) DPR Korea, (4) Myanmar

(G) Latin America and the Caribbean: (1) Bolivia, (2) Colombia, (3) Guatemala, (4) Haiti, (5) Nicaragua

From David Kaatrud, Director of the Analysis, Assessment and Preparedness Service (ODA). Available on the Internet on the WFP Home Page (, or by e-mail from, Chief of the Emergency Preparedness and Response Unit (ODAP). For information on resources, donors are requested to contact at WFP Rome, telephone +39 06 6513 2009. Media queries should be directed to, telephone +39 06 6513 2602. The address of WFP is Via Cesare Giulio Viola 68, Parco dei Medici, 00148 Rome, Italy.

A) Highlights

  • Despite the ongoing crisis in Cote d'Ivoire, all of WFP's six sub-offices in the country continue distributing food. However, distributions are limited to beneficiaries in the towns where WFP has offices, as UN agencies do not have security clearance to recommence distributions in surrounding areas. Over 7,000 Ivorian refugees in neighboring Liberia are also being assisted by WFP, in collaboration with UNHCR.

  • A WFP-led Rapid Emergency Food Needs Assessment Mission is ongoing in Eastern Chad.

  • The limited impact of this year's locust plague in the Sahel region does not warrant the elaboration of a regional WFP emergency operation. Instead, assistance will be tailored to respond to the specific pockets of vulnerability in the region.

  • Lack of fuel in Eritrea forced WFP to delay its general food distribution to some 600,000 drought-affected people and some schools, as well as to drastically reduce its monitoring activities.

B) Middle East, Central Asia and Eastern Europe: (1) Afghanistan

1) Afghanistan

(a) The general security situation was relatively quiet, though an increase in domestic crime and violence was reported in most parts of the country. Unconfirmed threats of attacks against internationals continued to be received in the North, South and Central regions. There is no new information on the three Joint Electoral Management Body (JEMB) hostages.

(b) In the Southern, South-Eastern and Eastern Regions, reports of movement of insurgents were received by UN security as well as threats of attacks against the international community. Additional security precautions will be taken for UN staff for the period leading to the presidential inauguration.

(c) From 11 to 17 November, some 270,675 beneficiaries received over 1,920 tons of food. Through food-for-work projects, 50 water reservoirs were rehabilitated in Charkint district of Balkh Province, contributing to improved access to clean drinking water and better provision of water for cattle.

(d) A one day workshop on report writing was held by WFP Jalalabad in order to improve the reporting skills of cooperating partners and government counterparts.

C) East and Central Africa: (1) Regional, (2) Burundi, (3) DR Congo, (4) Eritrea, (5) Ethiopia, (6) Rwanda, (7) Sudan, (8) Uganda

1) Regional

(a) The 2005 Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeals (CAP) for Eritrea, Uganda and Somalia among others were launched on 11 November. The appeals focus on the funding of activities that provide a cross-border dynamic and support country-level initiatives in recognition of the regional and complex nature of crises in the Great Lakes region.

2) Burundi

(a) Following the call by Burundi's President last week, to increase security vigilance, numerous suspects have been apprehended for police investigation. Four suspected robbers have reportedly been shot dead in the act (in Kayanza and Muramvya provinces).

(b) Skirmishes between Front for National Liberation (FNL) rebels on one side and the national army and Force pour la Defense de la Democratie (FDD) troops on the other side were reported in Kanyosha commune, Bujumbura Rural Province. FNL reportedly launched several mortar shells on the northern district of Mutanga Nord of the capital Bujumbura.

(c) The Early Warning and Food Security Surveillance Bulletin, compiled by FAO, warns that the short rains in some isolated areas and the lack of seeds may result in an overlap of seasons 2005 A and B, predicting a reduction in expected crops. The bulletin also reports increased admissions in nutritional centres in October compared to September.

(d) Between 8 and 14 November, WFP distributed some 1,600 tons of food aid to approximately 188,000 beneficiaries through different programme activities. In Ruyigi province, one distribution for 4,460 persons was suspended due to riots organized by some local youths who were requesting assistance for the whole population. In Gitega province, two distributions for 19,295 people have been postponed; one because the beneficiaries were not notified on time and the other because of the President's visit in the province.

(e) Last week, 679 returnees from Tanzania arrived through transit points at the border provinces of Muyinga, Ruyigi and Makamba. The returnees received a three-month return package provided by WFP

(f) Cases of meningitis were reported in Makamba province and cholera in the internally displaced persons (IDPs) site in Kabezi commune, Bujumbura Rural. Cholera and malaria were also reported in the pre-demobilisation site of Buramata, Bubanza province.

3) D.R. Congo

(a) The security situation in DRC is still volatile, particularly in the provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu. The main city of concern is Goma, North Kivu, where armed factions have been killing several people every night. In response, the Governor of North Kivu province has decided to keep military forces 15 kms away from the city. Soldiers entering Goma must leave their weapons at police check posts.

(b) The civilian population in Bukavu, South Kivu province joined with the citizens of Goma in sending a request to the transitional government in Kinshasa, to improve their security. The request suggested that if security does not improve, citizens would not allow any authorities from Kinshasa to visit their cities.

(c) In Katanga province, attacks by militias occurred frequently on the Likasi-Kolwezi road despite the presence of various police and government armed forces.

(d) Officials in North Kivu reported the transfer of 1,242 IDP families between Njiapanda and Manguredjepa, whose homes and agricultural fields were destroyed by uncontrolled armed forces. An inter-agency assessment mission including WFP, OCHA, UNICEF, United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC), SOLIDARITES, Agro Action Allemande (AAA) Butembo, and Cooperazione e Sviluppo (CESVI), recommended the provision of food aid and some non-food items to support these IDPs.

(e) A similar population displacement occurred in eastern Lubutu territory of Maniema province, where people were afraid of hostility and a cholera epidemic. The infrastructure and food supply of host communities is overstretched and malnutrition is reported to have increased.

(f) In spite of the seriousness of armed violence in the eastern part of DRC, over 6,000 tons of food were distributed to an estimated 640,700 beneficiaries last month. This total included some 800 tons distributed to approximately 4,000 beneficiaries in North Kivu to cover programmes in school feeding, nutrition, seed protection and vulnerable people.

(g) WFP in Goma resumed airlifting food from Goma to Kindu, a city of Maniema province with a severe food security problem. About 110 tons of food commodities have been airlifted.

4) Eritrea

(a) Five years after the 1998-2000 border conflict with Ethiopia, Eritrea continues to endure the aftermath of war, as noticed by destroyed houses, mined villages, shattered livelihoods, hunger and high malnutrition rates. A total of USD 157.2 million would be needed to fund humanitarian activities in Eritrea in 2005. Some 2.2 million Eritreans, out of a total population of 3.8 million, will be unable to feed themselves in the coming months. According to this week's UN Consolidated Inter- Agency Appeal for Eritrea, the food component of the appeal amounts USD 114 million.

(b) A anti-personnel mine exploded in a field 3 kms south of Tesseney towards Goluj, in the western part of Eritrea. Two people died and one person is recovering from severe injuries. The three victims had been working in their field, which is located close to a known minefield according to UNMEE. This mine appears not to have been newly planted according to UNMEE.

(c) WFP in the eastern part of country reported that although temperatures have gone down, the dry weather continues. The expected rains around October and November have not yet appeared. The food supply in the market is comparatively good. Only liquid milk and sugar were not available.

(d) Eritrea's fuel crisis is worsening. Even after having obtained petrol and diesel coupons, the purchase of fuel has become a problem as most of the gas stations have run out of stocks. WFP's sub offices have drastically reduced their monitoring activities. An exceptional allocation was obtained for the field trips of the Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission, which arrived on 15 November 2004.

(e) While fuel for the distribution of food aid is a stated priority for the Government, the transporter seems to be experiencing some problems as a result of which the November distribution of general feeding rations to approximately 600,000 drought-affected people and some schools has not yet commenced.

5) Ethiopia

(a) Joint nutritional screening is currently being undertaken in 3 refugee camps hosting Sudanese refugees in the Gambella region. Annual joint UNHCR/WFP/ARRA (Ethiopia's Administration for Refugees and Returnees Affairs) nutrition surveys were conducted in most refugee camps between June and July, except in Pugnido, Bonga and Dimma, where insecurity and the subsequent closure of the Gambella sub-office hindered the exercise from taking place. With relative stability in Gambella region and the re-opening of the sub-office in mid-October, joint nutritional screening has been planned for the remaining camps from 16 to 25 November, 2004.

(b) A meeting was held in Addis Ababa on 12 November for the purpose of raising funds from the international donor community and widening support from the Federal/Regional Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC) Desks to the joint UNICEF/WFP/regional DPPC Enhanced outreach strategy/Child Survival Initiative. This initiative includes nutritional screening and a basic health care package, implemented by the Regional Health Bureau and supported by UNICEF, and a three-month fortified supplementary food ration provided by WFP to children between 6-59 months old and pregnant and nursing women identified as malnourished.

(c) The Child Survival Initiative (CSI) continues to gather momentum in Southern Nations and Nationalities People Region (SNNPR), where it is being implemented. Key achievements to date across the 48 participating Woredas in SNNPR include: identification of 568 food distribution centres; 2,520 people trained in food management and nutrition education delivery techniques; contracts with transporters to enable small amounts of food to be moved to a large number of sites; and most importantly, since June 2004, 106,000 beneficiaries receiving 2,000 tons of CSB and 300 tons of oil.

(d) On November 5, WFP and its partners, the Government of Ethiopia's Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA) and UNHCR launched an appeal to donors in Ethiopia on behalf of the 116,000 refugees who depend on WFP's food assistance for their subsistence. The appeal is requesting donors to contribute 8,000 tons of cereals, 400 tons of oil, 100 tons pulses, 50 tons each of salt and blended foods for WFP's refugee operation in Ethiopia. The total value of these commodities, including all costs, is estimated at USD 4.2 million. WFP will face a cereal shortfall for this operation as early as February, followed by oil, pulses and blended foods in March and April 2005. Apart from the very negative consequences this will have on the nutritional status of refugees in Ethiopia, the food shortfall will also paralyze all current efforts to repatriate over 6,000 Somali refugees and close the Eastern refugee camp in Aysha in 2005, as Somali refugees normally receive a repatriation food package from WFP to enable them to return to their areas of origin.

6) Rwanda

(a) The number of Congolese refugees at Kiziba camp in Kibuye province has increased from last weeks figure by 682, due to mainly transfers from Nyagatare transit camp (TC) in Cyangugu province. At Gihembe camp, no change was noticed vis-a-vis last week's figure. However, due to transfer to Kiziba camp, the number of refugees at Nyagatare TC now stands at 3,188. UNHCR also reported 794 refugees at Nkamira camp. This brings the total number of Congolese refugees in four camps distributed across four provinces to 41,326.

(b) Meanwhile, there have been little or no significant changes in the caseload of Burundian refugees at the three camps of Kigeme, Ngenda and Gikonko during last week. It seems that the movement of refugees is stabilizing. Thus, the total number of Burundian refugees in the three camps is 2,532. Overall, the total number of Congolese and Burundian refugees in Rwanda, spread across seven camps in seven provinces during the reporting period is 43,858. It appears that the flow of refugees from both directions is stabilizing and the increase from the previous report is attributed by refugees that had not yet been reported. Again, no repatriation took place.

7) Sudan

(a) While the attention of the media has focused heavily on the continuing humanitarian emergency in the Darfur region of western Sudan, the food outlook for southern Sudan in 2005 looks fairly bleak. When a comprehensive peace agreement is signed between the government in Khartoum and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Sudan People's Liberation Army, the food security situation in the south would likely worsen with an influx of people returning to their homes. WFP, like its partners, is expanding its presence in the south to improve food security and nutrition monitoring in various regions, interact with local authorities and support the peace process.

(b) During a press conference in South Darfur, following the relocation of IDPs from Al Geer camp (2 November and 9 November), the UN Special Representative of the Secretary General (UNSRSG) emphasized that relocations should be carried out with respect for the international humanitarian and human rights laws and specific agreements reached with humanitarian partners. He also encouraged the Government of Sudan (GoS) to devise criteria that should determine camp locations. Following the SRSG's visit to South Darfur, the GoS has agreed to consult aid agencies and IDPs before relocating IDPs from Otash, Mosey and Derig camps in Nyala.

(c) Total dispatches in November from Darfur Area Offices (AOs) to distribution sites stand at 7,800 tons of food for an estimated 444,000 beneficiaries (based on dispatches). Dispatches from AOs to Cooperating Partners (CPs) indicate that beneficiaries will receive a balanced and complete food basket in November. As of 15 November, some 13,400 tons of food have been dispatched by road, rail and air from hubs in Khartoum and El Obeid to the Darfur state capitals. It should be noted that deliveries via road and air operations slowed temporarily down during the Eid holidays.

(d) Confirmed contributions received to date against the Darfur EMOP amount to USD 177,982,266, 12.7 percent of the total requirement. In order to overcome the shortfall in cereals in January due to late arrivals, WFP is considering sending a portion of this commodity earlier.

8) Uganda

(a) The Government of Uganda has announced a one-week suspension of military operations against the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in a limited area to facilitate meeting between GoU and LRA representatives. The Uganda People's Defence Forces have started withdrawing from the gazetted area, creating safe corridors for the LRA to consult on whether to accept the President's offer for peace talks. The protracted Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency has forced over 1.4 million persons to flee their home and seek shelter in over 135 congested camps. Last week, the LRA political commissar expressed willingness to engage in dialogue with the Government.

(b) During the week the security situation in Gulu, Pader and Lira districts remained relatively stable, although security in Kitgum district remains fluid and unpredictable. Regular rebel ambushes, attacks on civilians outside of IDP camps still occur. Twelve women tending their fields were abducted on 17 November.

(c) Based on the recommendations of the Joint WFP/UNHCR/GoU Assessment Mission in November in Adjumani and Moyo districts, over 97,000 refugees and nationals require food assistance before the late December harvest due to poor rains and displacement by the LRA rebel forces.

(d) The Government of Uganda, with the UN system, has launched the 2005 United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal requesting USD 157 million, including USD 86 million for food needs for IDPs and refugees in 2005.

(e) WFP food distribution continues to reach over 1.4 million displaced persons, 154,000 refugees and other vulnerable persons. During the period 8 to 13 November, some 3,630 tons of WFP relief food assistance were distributed to some 410,330 persons including IDPs sheltering in camps in Gulu, Kitgum and Pader districts in the northern Acholi sub-region; refugees, school children and other vulnerable persons.

(f) A USAID Food for Peace delegation visited Teso region from 8-9 November. In Soroti and Katakwi districts, the mission held discussions with district officials regarding the Pilot School Feeding Programme in the region and visited WFP-supported health and nutrition projects.

(g) WFP faces a shortfall of about 17,815 tons of food commodities representing a funding gap of USD 10 million, required to maintain the food pipeline necessary to continue providing relief assistance to IDPs and refugees through April next year.

D) West Africa Region: (1) Sahel Region, (2) Chad, (3) Cote d'Ivoire, (4) Guinea, (5) Liberia, (6) Sierra Leone

1) Sahel region

(a) In order to estimate the impact of the locust plague on food security, WFP carried-out needs assessments. On one hand, this was done through participation in the FAO / CILSS / FEWS / WFP crop assessment missions in October. On the other hand, WFP carried-out VAM studies in the two most affected countries (Mauritania and Mali) to determine the hardest-hit locations, estimate the degree of vulnerability of populations / erosion of their coping mechanisms and define the impact on household food security. The results of the CILSS / FAO / FEWS / WFP crop assessments were presented and discussed at a meeting in Banjul from 1 to 4 November. The final reports of the VAM studies were finalized on 18 November.

(b) The joint crop assessment missions point to an overall cereal production in the Sahel of approximately 11.6 million tons (gross) or 10.2 million tons (net), i.e. an average harvest for the region. This reasonably satisfactory result, suggests that the rainfall pattern has been favourable overall, that locust damage has been contained partly by the irregular rains that caused other damage to crops and thus gave less opportunity for locusts to destroy, and to some extent by control measures, which came late but had an impact in some production areas. What has happened in many areas is that "drought" may have saved crops from locusts but locusts and drought together have wrecked havoc for many communities and households.

(c) In Mauritania locust damage is more generalized - a situation quite different to that for other affected countries. Vulnerability analysis indicated that the negative impact on food security is widespread in the country. In Niger and Mali, where the overall production is reported as average, considerable losses have been recorded in well identified geographical areas. For Mali, the regions most affected are Kayes, Koulikoro, Segou (Nampala), Mopti (Bandiagara), Tombouctou, Kidal and Gao. For Niger, the regions most affected are Tillabery and Tahoua.

(d) Senegal has coped well with the locust crisis through a decisive control programme, but has been fortunate in that the infestation has been restricted to some rain-fed areas in the centre and in the north. The overall food balance remains within normal range, with cereal production slightly above the average. Should limited intervention be needed in some areas negatively affected by locusts (i.e. Gossas, Diourbel, Fatick), WFP will revise upwards the disaster mitigation component of its Country Programme.

(e) Even if affected by locust invasions, assessments in Burkina Faso confirm a surplus cereal balance. However, there are areas that are hard-hit and the Government estimates that approximately 300,000 people may be in need of food aid. The Government intends to use the combined resources of the national food security reserve and the SONAGESS (National Food Security Structure) to respond to the needs.

(f) Although it is estimated that half of Cape Verde's food production may have been affected by locust infestation, the Government would address the issue through the subsidized sale of food aid rather than through direct distributions.

(g) Chad's negative food balance of 374,000 tons has been questioned and there seems to be no evidence of either locust or drought damage on crop output. Gambia and Guinea Bissau were not affected by the locust plague, therefore no assistance is required.

(h) In conclusion, the overall situation does not warrant the preparation of a regional emergency operation (EMOP) since the Sahel is not facing a generalized catastrophe. Assistance will be tailored to respond to the specific pockets of vulnerability in the region. Interventions will concentrate on the heart of the lean season and target the most vulnerable in areas most at risk. In the case of Mauritania, WFP will proceed with a budget revision of its already existing PRRO. Small-scale country specific EMOPs will be carried out in Niger and Mali. The country offices of the three countries will shortly present estimates of the specific tonnages and budget needed to respond to needs caused by locusts and drought

(i) During the next lean season, it will be very important to monitor the erosion of the coping mechanisms of affected populations and readjust WFP interventions accordingly. Early warning and contingency planning will be essential, both at the WFP-specific and the inter-agency levels, as all preliminary indications point towards the return of locusts in West Africa by next July.

2) Chad

(a) The overall security situation in Eastern Chad is generally calm. However, tension continued to be reported between refugees and host communities over natural resources, particularly water, firewood and pasture.

(b) The estimated caseload reported by UNHCR at 15 November is 197,000 refugees. This comprises of some 195,000 refugees registered in camps, and some 2,600 to be relocated from border sites.

(c) During the past week, WFP distributed a total of over 625 tons to some 82,045 beneficiaries under EMOP 10327.0, Emergency Assistance to Sudanese Refugees in Eastern Chad. This comprises of about 610 tons to over 82,045 refugees under General Food Distribution (GFD), and 15 tons to 3,410 refugees under the Blanket Supplementary Feeding (BSF) programme. Food distribution was interrupted in Am Nabak, Bahai, Treguine and Djabal refugee camps due to after-Ramadan festivities.

(d) Blanket Supplementary Food distributions started on 18 November with reduced rations varying between 407 and 597 kcal. Meanwhile, the next General Distribution cycle is set to start on 22 November, to cover a two-week period. A reduced ration will be provided, varying between 447 and 1,835 kcal according to the camp.

(e) Given pipeline breaks in pulses and CSB, WFP will provide incomplete rations for the rest of the November distribution cycle. Although WFP's upstream pipeline is healthy with the arrival of some 6,500 tons of assorted commodities in Benghazi, WFP may face shortfalls in cereals, pulses CSB and oil during the month of December, due to the long lead-time required to deliver the cargo.

(f) WFP UN Humanitarian Air Services delivered some 0.5 ton of medical supplies for MSF Belgium and some 0.5 ton of ICT equipment for UNHCR from N'Djamena to Abéché.

(g) MSF Belgium has released the results of a nutritional survey carried out in September 2004 on 808 children (6-59 months) in Iridimi and Touloum refugee camps. Its findings indicated a global acute malnutrition rate of 19 percent, a moderate acute malnutrition rate of 17.1 percent, and a severe acute malnutrition rate of 2.4 percent. MSF B noted that the overall nutritional situation of refugees has improved since the survey was carried out.

(h) A WFP-led Rapid Emergency Food Needs Assessment Mission has started in Eastern Chad for a period of ten days. The mission comprises of WFP, FEWS-Net, UNICEF, CNAR, FAO, ONASA, ONDR, DPA, and UNDP. Findings and recommendations of the mission will determine the level and areas of intervention in the most affected host communities.

3) Côte d'Ivoire

(a) On 13 November, President Gbagbo replaced the head of the army with Colonel Philipe Mangou. Colonel Mangou, in his former post as Director of Operations, managed the air attack on Bouake on 4 November. He is considered to be more of a hard-liner than the previous army head, Mathias Doue.

(b) UN resolution 1572 was passed on 15 November imposing an immediate arms embargo on Cote d'Ivoire. The text also calls for a travel ban and a freeze on "funds and other financial assets" to be imposed against those blocking the peace process.

(c) At the French base (BIMA) in Abidjan, hundreds of foreigners, mainly French, are still waiting to be evacuated. The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has announced that more than 5,000 French have been repatriated from Cote d'Ivoire. Most of the American community in Bouake, mainly missionaries, left overland to Mali on Saturday in a convoy of ten buses. On Sunday, Jacques Chirac confirmed that France would continue to "assume its responsibilities" under the UN mandate and would not allow the situation to degrade to "anarchy or a fascist regime".

(d) Air Ivoire has begun commercial flights from Abidjan to Dakar. These are the only commercial flights at the moment. The airport remains under French control; Ivorian police are also present. All is calm in Abidjan. Stores, business and schools are open as normal. During the past week the Jeunes Patriotes have maintained a vigil outside the house of President Gbagbo and are still manning checkpoints at the entrance points to Plateau and also in Deux Plateaux. The current situation in most of the northern part of the country is calm. Water and electricity has returned to the north and Guiglo. The cell phone networks and land lines are also working.

(e) UNHCR states that "at least" 5,000 Ivorians have crossed into Liberia since last Thursday. WFP Liberia has prepositioned food commodities at the border with Côte d'Ivoire to assist this caseload.

(f) On 17 and 18 November, meetings were held in Abidjan and in the field in which WFP met again with partners. The meetings enabled the identification of which partners remain operational: some NGOs have completely left the country. UN agencies in Korhogo, Bouake, Guiglo and Man have not received clearance to begin operations outside of the town, but UN agencies in Tabou have received clearance to renew operations in surrounding areas. WFP operations are therefore limited. In Guiglo, in addition to supplying the refugee and IDP camps, WFP's office has also conducted food for agriculture distributions in Guiglo. Seeds and tools for vegetable farming were distributed along with a seed protection ration.

(g) WFP International staff has been evacuated from Guiglo and Bouake, with the exception of one international staff member who stayed in Bouake. National staff in Guiglo, Bouake and Man who wished to be relocated to Abidjan have also been relocated. WFP currently has seven international staff in Abidjan and one in Bouake. WFP is planning to reactivate its Yamoussoukro office. The strategy of opening the office in Yamoussoukro is to facilitate negotiations for access across the buffer zone to Bouake.

(h) WFP is taking advantage of the relative calm this week to dispatch food to sub-offices in the north. The Programme negotiated with the National Armed Forces of Cote d'Ivoire (FANCI) to ensure laissez-passer. About 1,300 tons will be sent to reinforce stocks in Guiglo, Bouake, Man and Korhogo.

4) Guinea

(a) The repatriation of Liberian refugees began on 10 November; almost 310 people from Lainé camp in the N'Zerekore region returned home. Despite current hostilities in neighbouring Cote d'Ivoire, no unusual cross-border movement has been observed.

(b) A joint mission with the Government, WFP and other UN organizations took place in Kissidougou from 9 to 12 November to evaluate the way forward for some 2000 Sierra Leonean refugees who have remained in Guinea after UNHCR's organized repatriation. The mission found that host communities were willing to accept the refugees and provide farmland, but that the refugee committee resisted reintegration and insisted on resettlement in other countries. A future mission was recommended to meet directly with refugee households in order to further explore the problem.

(c) WFP currently assists a total of over 79,650 refugees. Of these 73,840 are from Liberia; some 3,980 are from Cote d'Ivoire; and over 1,830 are from Sierra Leone. A reduced ration of 1600 kcal continues to be distributed in the camps. The ration was reduced from 1600 to 1200 kcal for the residual group of Sierra Leonean refugees The refugees openly complained about the reduction and one distribution agent was harassed during the distribution. Salt has been reintroduced in the food basket after last month's pipeline break.

(d) WFP and partners met in N'Zerekore to discuss HIV/AIDS issues. For the pilot project for PLWHA (People living with HIV/AIDS) the identification and anonymity of the beneficiaries have been cause of concern. Planned events in recognition of World AIDS Day on 1 December were also discussed.

(e) A nutritional survey is being organized by WFP Kissidougou, UNHCR and the American Refugee Committee. The survey is scheduled to take place from 25 to 27 November.

(f) WFP is in great need of additional contributions for its operations in Guinea. Even with the current reduction in activities and rations, the situation is critical and current resources are expected to begin to run out in January 2005.

5) Liberia

(a) Past weeks had been filled with rumours of likely unrest and violence to be unleashed in Monrovia at the end of the Muslims fasting period. However, the end of Ramadan was celebrated peacefully. The enforcement of the curfew through UNMIL's robust patrolling eased the tension. WFP operations continued without major interruptions, although some disturbances from the WFP casual workers at the Freeport were experienced, concerning their contractual status.

(b) Due to recent unrest in Cote d'Ivoire, over 7000 verified Ivorian refugees have migrated into Nimba County in Liberia. The influx of Ivorian refugees moving into the region could increase depending on the intensity and duration of crisis. A joint UNHCR / WFP assessment team surveyed the three border towns of Buutuo, Buehlay and Dimplay to ascertain the influx situation and provide immediate humanitarian needs and food security for both refugees and the host communities. The major constraints raised were the lack of shelter and food for the refugees.

(c) The joint mission observed that distribution of relief aid to the refugees from the border towns might act as a pulling factor of more refugees in to Liberia. The mission, therefore, recommended relocation of refugees to restrict any unnecessary border crossings. The feasibility of relocation is still under discussion. WFP is exploring best options in supporting this population. So far there are no Ivorian refugee movements reported in other border counties apart from Nimba. However, UNHCR confirmed spontaneous return of Liberian refugees from Cote d'Ivoire, who reintegrated in the various communities in Grand Gedeh County

(d) WFP Regional Director for West Africa Mr. Mustapha Darboe was in Liberia for a three days visit from 15 to 18 November, to discuss with government and donor officials, implementing partners, as well as members of the UN on how best to support the efforts being made to create an enabling environment for the resettlement of IDPs and refugees.

(e) Last week, 100 tons of food had been pre-positioned in WFP's sub-office in Saclepea for on-ward delivery to Buutuo. WFP airlifted 1 ton of high energy biscuits for distribution to some 2,200 Ivorian Refugees in Buutuo.

(f) November continues to be the grace period when weapons and ammunition can be handed in at any UNMIL check point voluntarily without prosecution. Ex-combatants, even those who could not be legitimately disarmed before the official end of the exercise on October 31, will receive full Disarmament and Demobilization (DD) benefits, including WFP rations. Unconfirmed reports raised concerns that ex-fighters of Liberia (possibly graduates from the DDRR) and mercenaries are crossing into Cote d'Ivoire to participate in the current crisis of that country. This may have adverse effects on the Liberian peace process and therefore WFP operations, especially in the border areas.

(g) The total of distributed food commodities in Liberia last week amounted to over 425 tons, benefiting 47,500 people. Distribution of general food rations to IDPs continued. In support of the resettlement process of returning Liberian refugees to the country, WFP distributed a total of more than 3 tons of assorted food commodities to some 1000 refugees, who had repatriated from Nigeria to Monrovia, as a two month resettlement food package. The remaining two months package will be distributed at the level of the communities they will be resettled in.

(h) WFP resumed delivery of food aid to schools during the past week. Schools in and around Monrovia had closed due to the recent unrest in the city. A total of about 42 tons of various food commodities was delivered to benefit some 9500 children. In November 2004, WFP plans to support a total of over 179,365 school children with some 790 tons of food. The school feeding programme will be expanded in 2005 if the food pipeline situation improves.

(i) Resumption of some Food Support to Local Initiatives (FSLI) activities is expected soon. WFP suspended all food for work activities since September 2004 due to resource constraints. An increasing number of FSLI activities will be supported since the food pipeline has gradually improved in recent weeks. WFP Liberia plans to feed an average of 700,000 beneficiaries with 8000 tons of food per month for the next six months from December 2004 through April 2005. The current available resources will meet food needs up to December 2004.

(j) WFP Liberia requires additional pledges and resources estimated at USD 18.7 Million to avert shortfalls of some 18,375 tons of cereals, 1430 tons of pulses, 1375 tons of veg oil, 3400 tons of CSB, 50 tons of salt and some 35 tons of sugar from December 2004 through April 2005.

6) Sierra Leone

(a) The security situation in the country generally remains calm. Military training of new recruits is in progress in Kenema, to fill in the gap left by UNAMSIL's draw down.

(b) During the first fortnight of November, WFP distributed a total of over 1,470 tons of assorted food commodities to some 171,510 beneficiaries.

(c) In Kailahun, monitoring was accomplished in the five skills training centres in Luawa and Upper Bambara chiefdoms. Training is going on in all the centres. Thirteen institutions in the Kenema operational area were served, as well as seventeen centres in Bo. The joint delivery (Ministry of Education, Science & Technology and WFP) of assorted food items to schools in the fourteen chiefdoms of Kailahun district is ongoing. Pre-positioning of deworming tablets to WFP supported schools is also in progress. MEST has now established two shifts in some schools as a result of increased enrolment. Food has also been delivered to 117 schools in Kambia District. In addition, distributions were carried out in two chiefdoms in Tonkolili and in six chiefdoms in Bombali district. Food distribution was jointly carried out in collaboration with the government's inspectorate office in both districts.

(d) One therapeutic feeding centre run by ACF in Makeni was served with food items as well as five clinics in Bombali district and ten clinics. In Port Loko, assorted food items have been delivered to 4 hospitals.

(e) A joint WFP/UNHCR evaluation of the WFP pilot food distribution has been concluded. The purpose of the mission was to evaluate the effectiveness of the agencies' new food arrangement, piloted in five countries, Sierra Leone being one of them.

(f) A USAID Food for Peace Mission visited Sierra Leone and was briefed on WFP's activities. The mission also visited WFP projects in the field.

(g) The pipeline situation for the Sierra Leone component of the West African Coastal PRRO is a source of concern and additional contributions from donors are urgently needed to continue operations in 2005.

E) Southern Africa: (1) Regional, (2) Angola, (3) Lesotho, (4) Malawi, (5) Mozambique

1) Regional

(a) WFP urgently seeks cash contributions to procure food for the first six months of the regional PRRO 10310, Assistance to Populations in Southern Africa Vulnerable to Food Insecurity and the Impact of AIDS. Some 158,000 tons are needed for food distribution in the first two quarters of 2005. An estimated 2.8 million people are targeted for assistance in the first quarter peak.

2) Angola

(a) Heavy rains destroyed 40 houses and killed four people in Malanje municipality. Over 25 families living in the Viana IDP transit center lost their shelter in the northwestern Luanda area. These families are currently using alternative shelters which do not meet minimal standards. The IDP transit center currently shelters 1,600 families. The prevailing weather conditions have begun to seriously hamper WFP food distribution activities. The road from Bengo to Zaire province in northern Angola is expected to remain inaccessible for the coming months. In Uige province also in the north, the repatriation of 850 external returnees in Maquela do Zombo has been suspended until at least early 2005 due to bad road conditions.

(b) The PRRO 10054.2, Support to Return and Resettlement, continues to be severely under funded. USD 63 million (40 percent) has been received against the revised requirement up to December 2005 of USD 156 million. The cereals pipeline remains critical. WFP continues to approach donors to secure additional contributions to allow distributions to take place up until next year's harvest.

3) Lesotho

(a) From 10 to 16 November, WFP and its partners distributed about 900 tons of food to 78,000 vulnerable people including children under five years of age; people affected by HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis and their families; pregnant and nursing mothers; and orphans.

(b) About 510,000 of the 948,000 drought affected people in Lesotho will be provided WFP food assistance until the next harvest in May 2005, along with 120,000 chronically poor.

4) Malawi

(a) Six months after harvest, the number of households running out of food from their own production continues to increase. The situation is likely to become serious in parts of the southern region, where 2004 crop production was mostly seriously affected by adverse weather, and where people have few means of coping with the production failures.

(b) According to the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS-Net), the Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation increased selling maize price by 70 percent this month. The situation is likely to fuel price increases in the local markets and increase the number of people needing emergency food aid, as more people are unable to purchase expensive grain in the market place.

(c) Some 1.7 million people require WFP emergency food assistance in early 2005, compared to the initial planning figure of 1.3 million. WFP will also assist 168,000 chronically poor and food-insecure people in the country, under the regional PRRO 10310.

5) Mozambique

(a) In October, WFP distributed some 1,500 tons of food aid to 87,000 beneficiaries. 80 percent of the beneficiaries received food assistance through Vulnerable Group Feeding, while the rest participated in food-for-work and food-for-training activities. About 56,000 orphans and other vulnerable primary school children were provided with take-home rations under the emergency operation EMOP 10290, Targeted Relief to Vulnerable Households in Southern Africa.

F) Asia: (1) Bangladesh, (2) Cambodia, (3) DPR Korea, (4) Myanmar

1) Bangladesh

(a) Most Bangladeshis have been celebrating the advent of Eid which started on 15 November and marked the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. In advance of the Eid holidays, the Government of Bangladesh increased and expedited deliveries of flood relief.

(b) Monsoon rains have stopped, but some low-lying areas still face detrimental effects of water logging. Bangladesh is now in its main lean season for which normal adverse conditions are greatly exacerbated by damages and losses sustained by flooding. Concern has been raised about consequences (on flood victims) of cold spell that normally arrives in Bangladesh in December, and adds to suffering of ultra-poor.

(c) EMOP 10380, Assistance to Flood Affected People in Bangladesh, is well into move from the relief to the recovery mode. Vulnerable Group Rehabilitation and Primary School Feeding activities are ongoing. Beneficiary selection of the Supplementary Feeding component has already started, and food distributions are scheduled to begin by 15 December. In addition, WFP is planning for Rural Livelihoods and Infrastructure Rehabilitation activities, which will be carried out through a food-for work modality, as of next year.

(d) Resourcing levels remain a concern: up to now, only 30 percent of the EMOP has been resourced. Unless new contributions will be received, most activities will come to halt during or after December this year.

2) Cambodia

(a) Over the last four years, Cambodia has seen an extraordinary combination of drought and flood, a phenomenon of global climate change that is expected to produce persistent food shortages in the years ahead.

(b) WFP and Cambodia's National Committee for Disaster Management conducted a joint assessment of four southern provinces in September, investigating both household food security and the effects of drought on the December rice crop, which accounts for 85 percent of the total harvest (the smaller "dry season" crop is harvested in April).

(c) Preliminary findings show that the rice harvest will be lower than last year by 20 percent. However, recent rains may soften the blow of the drought. WFP and the Royal Government of Cambodia's Committee for Disaster Management will undertake another joint assessment in December to determine the full extent of the damage to the rice crop from the drought.

(d) Last week, WFP started providing up to 1000 tons of emergency rice rations to some 50,000 rural Cambodians in the southern provinces that have been hardest hit by the drought.

3) DPR Korea

(a) From 13 to 19 November, 17 out of 19 Local Food Production factories operated. One of the non-operational factories (CMB factory in Huichon) is reportedly operational, however it has not been monitored in November due to the inaccessibility of Chagang province. Monitoring in Chagang Province has been halted since August. WFP will have to announce it non-accessible (and stop all food deliveries as of 1 December) if no visit is allowed in November. Production for the second week of November was 1,200 tons, which is below the EMOP average.

(b) With the recent arrival of large contributions, WFP is now able to feed the entire caseload of beneficaries for the first time in 2 years. Substantive new pledges will allow WFP to continue this support through May 2005, with the exception of oil that will run out as early as January for some beneficiary groups.

4) Myanmar

(a) Recent political changes since mid October affected WFP food transport in Northern Rakhine State (NRS) stalling food distribution for three weeks. The situation has improved this week and WFP has started moving rice to project areas.

(b) During the last two weeks, WFP has conducted a vulnerable ranking exercise for the purpose of food-for-work (FFW) site-selection in NRS and Magway Division.

(c) Under EMOP 10345.0, a total of over 475 tons of rice was distributed to some 69,500 beneficiaries during the month of October, through food-for-work, food-for-education and vulnerable group feeding in Northern Shan State (NSS). The FFW programme will be starting at the end of harvest season. Therefore, a one-day refresher training for FFW was organized for WFP's partners on 12 November.

(d) Under the PRRO 10066.2, a total of 36 tons was distributed to about 2,850 beneficiaries (675 households) living with HIV/AIDS or other chronical diseases, in central Dry zone, during the fortnight.

G) Latin America and the Caribbean: (1) Bolivia, (2) Colombia, (3) Guatemala, (4) Haiti, (5) Nicaragua.

1) Bolivia

(a) According to a rapid assessment carried out by WFP counterpart, DRIPAD, and Civil Defense in the frost-affected areas of Cochabamba, 1590 families in 34 communities have suffered from crop damages. Losses exceeded a thousand hectares: 876 Hs of maize crops, 75 Hs of potatoes, 67 Hs of peas and 17 Hs of broad beans. The assessment also determined that the main need is water for human consumption.

(b) A total of about 11,130 tons of food aid were distributed to some 1,830 families in 47 communities of Machareti and Huacaya municipalities (Chuquisaca Department) during the past weekend. A UNICEF donation (fortified cookies) for children under two was also distributed: approximately 650 children received 42,185 rations. Distributions in the municipalities of Gutierrez and Camiri in the Department of Santa Cruz are being completed.

(c) WFP, through DRIPAD, arranged water supply for the villages of Pasorapa, Aiquile and Mizque in Cochabamba. Through food-for-work activities, WFP will support asset rehabilitation activities, benefiting some 1200 families with 15,060 food rations.

(d) An advance fund to start the implementation of the new EMOP has been approved. These resources will allow WFP to continue the assistance to the 41,200 drought-affected people in El Chaco, once IR-EMOP food is completely distributed. This contribution will enable WFP to distribute approximately 1,100 tons of food from the end of November this year until the end of February 2005. The affected families will need food assistance until May 2005.

2) Colombia

(a) Strong seasonal rains and floods in eight provinces triggered the Colombian authorities to declare a "State of Emergency" in the provinces of Atlántico, Bolívar, Cesar, Córdoba, Magdalena, La Guajira, Sucre and Santander. The Colombian Government has designated more than USD 450,000 dollars to help affected families. Since the beginning of the rainy season in October, 19 people have died, 5 have disappeared and some 200,000 are homeless. This year's rainy season has been the most damaging in years; and, according to the Colombian Meteorological Institute's forecast, the rains are not expected to stop until the middle of December.

(b) At least 11 people were injured in a strong earthquake in western Colombia. The quake, measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale, struck at around 0900 GMT on Monday. Governmental sources said the damage was minor despite the high magnitude of the quake. Most of the property damages occurred in downtown Bajo Baudo and in the scarcely-populated southwestern Choco jungle. Some buildings in Cali were affected as well.

(c) New displacements have been reported in the province of Putumayo, south Colombia. At least 250 people were forced to flee their home due to clashes and violent actions by illegal armed groups in the area. Last 7 November, an illegal armed group murdered an undetermined group of people in rural areas of El Afilador, near the border with Ecuador, causing the massive displacement of people. The IDPs have temporarily settled in the municipality of Nueva Loja, in Ecuador.

(d) The leader of an indigenous community and his son were murdered by members of an illegal armed group in La Sierra, province of Cauca. The Office of the United Nations Human Rights Commissioner demanded that illegal armed groups in Colombia must respect the rights of the indigenous communities and the International Humanitarian Law.

(e) A total of some 330 tons of food was distributed in pre-school and school feeding activities to some 71,035 children in 11 provinces in the context of the PRRO 10158, Assistance to People Displaced by Violence.

3) Guatemala

(a) A sharp decrease in temperatures as a result of a cold front has prompted the National Coordinating Committee for Disaster Reduction, CONRED, the Guatemala Red Cross and local authorities to activate their contingency plans and set up temporary shelter centers to assist mainly homeless people and to prevent hypothermia cases. Temperatures registered ?5º C in Quetzaltenango and ?3º C in San Marcos and Totonicapán.

(b) Low temperatures have caused frosts that damaged vegetable crops, particularly in Quetzaltenango and nearby communities of the Northwest region. According to data provided by the local office of the Department of Agriculture, around 1,500 tons of potato, cauliflower, broccoli, onion, French pea, and celery, suffered from damages in some 90 hectares in Quetzaltenango. Losses have been estimated at USD 420,000.

(c) After last week's rains, around 6,000 people remained isolated in communities near the Polochic river basin. The most affected areas include the municipality of Panzós, Alta Verapaz, and the Ixcán region, in Quiché, where some 300 people were evacuated. In addition, CONRED lowered the alert level from red to yellow in Morales and Puerto Barrios, where heavy rains had prompted the evacuation of nearly 600 people. The floods damaged maize, beans, pineapple, banana, coffee, cardamom, tomato, citrus fruits, and rice crops, as well as infrastructure such as bridges and roads. Moreover, landslides that cut off roads following last week's heavy rains isolated around 35 communities in the municipalities of Chajul and Nebaj, province of Quiché.

(d) CONRED's damage report accounted for a total of 13,600 people affected and 1,178 people sheltered in temporary evacuation centers. In addition, the floods affected a total of 1,976 houses, and 9 bridges were extremely damaged. Private organizations, CONRED, the Ministry of Agriculture, and local authorities have provided assistance to the affected populations, including emergency food aid.

(e) The accumulated inflation rate for 2004 (January-October) reached 7.52 percent, significantly higher than expected levels. This is likely to reduce access to food to the poorest sectors of the population.

(f) Several embassies have released public announcements reinforcing their travel warnings to raise awareness of safety and security concerns when traveling within Guatemala.

4) Haiti

(a) The entire country remains in UN security Phase III. The security situation was relatively calm, despite some tension in some areas of Port-au-Prince such as Bel Air, Cite Soleil, Martissant and La Saline. Violence increased in Nazon Lalue, Martissant and Carrefour. However, in Port-au-Prince, normal seaport activities were observed. The security situation improved in and around Gonaives, which is largely attributable to an increase in the patrols of MINUSTAH and NHP (Haitian National Police)/CIMO (Compagnie d'Intervention et de Maintenance de l'Ordre).

(b) Due to the improvement of the security situation in Gonaïves, WFP food convoys have reached the city without any incidents. Since the onset of the floods a total of some 2,345 tons of food commodities have been distributed in the coastal city and in other affected areas. From 7 to 13 November, CARE, WFP's main implementing partner, distributed a total of about 45 tons of food commodities (one-week rations) to 1,900 beneficiaries, affected by floods on the outskirts of Gonaïves. Also, over 15 tons of food were distributed in Bassin Bleu and Vital Andrieu. Targeted distributions in Gonaives will now replace general distributions.

(c) One hundred and sixty-nine containers of rice were received in Port-au-Prince from Freeport Bahamas. An additional 80 containers of rice containing some 1,600 tons were also received in Cap Haitien.

5) Nicaragua

(a) Municipal elections that took place on the 7th of November, have subsequently generated tensions in the municipalities where the results were disputed. (b) During the first fortnight of November, the food security situation in Nicaragua has been affected by the unavailability of beans in a significant number of markets across the country, leading to dramatic price increases. The lack of beans is caused by widespread losses of the first harvest and large scale exportations of the grain to Honduras and El Salvador. The prognostic of the second harvest (Postrera) is fairly good and is expected for the end of November/beginning of December.

(c) Food distributions under regional PRRO 10212.0 have continued. Currently, a total of over 67,465 school children are being assisted in the autonomous RAAN region, as well as some 11,495 school children in the municipality of Matagalpa under the PRRO. In addition, over 10,025 vulnerable children under 2 years of age; 8,729 expectant and nursing women; and 2,000 poor rural families are also being assisted in the northern and central region of the country.

(d) PRRO 10212.0 will face shortfalls through April 2005, beginning in January, of rice and beans; in March, of vegetable oil and maize. If no commodities are announced in the upcoming months or if those which would be announced arrive late, the PRRO will face serious pipeline breaks during the second quarter of year 2005.

Note: All tonnage figures in this report refer to metric tons (MT).