WFP Emergency Report No. 42 of 2002
(B) Asia Region: (1) DPR Korea
(C) West Africa Region: (1) Côte d'Ivoire
(D) Southern Africa Region: (1) Regional
overview, (2) Zimbabwe, (3) Zambia, (4) Lesotho, (5) Malawi, (6) Mozambique,
(7) Swaziland, (8) Angola,
(E) Eastern and Central Africa Region: (1) Ethiopia, (2) Burundi, (3) Republic of Congo
(F) West and Central Asia Region: (1) Afghanistan
(G) Middle East Region: (1) Palestinian Territories
(H) Latin America and Caribbean Region: (1) Ecuador, (2) Honduras, (3) Nicaragua, (4) Paraguay, (5) other countries
(I) Eastern Europe Region: (1) North Caucasus
From Francesco Strippoli, Director of the Office of Humanitarian Affairs; available on the Internet on the WFP Home Page (www.wfp.org), or by e-mail from Zlatan.Milisic@wfp.org.
For information on resources, donors are requested to contact Valerie.Sequeira@wfp.org at WFP Rome, telephone 39 06 6513 2009. Media queries should be directed to Trevor.Rowe@wfp.org, telephone 39 06 6513 2602. The address of WFP is Via Cesare Giulio Viola 68, Parco dei Medici, 00148 Rome, Italy.
(a) Ahead of the World Food Day on 16 October, WFP expressed deep concern about its inability to respond fully to ever-mounting hunger crises, despite the generosity of donors and enormous sacrifices by relief workers. In addition to a lack of funding, the main challenge comes from a surge in new needs, driven primarily by weather-related disasters and by HIV/AIDS.
(b) Extreme weather has intensified its role in current crises: in southern Africa, drought is the prime cause of hunger, which is now threatening an estimated 14.4 million people, according to a recent assessment. At the same time, another serious drought is looming over the Horn of Africa where the figure of those at risk in Ethiopia alone has unexpectedly increased to between 10-14 million, confronting the international community with a new and enormous challenge.
(c) On the other side of the African continent, civil unrest in Ivory Coast could affect up to 4 million people unless a peaceful solution is soon found. In Mauritania, drought is already causing serious hardship and is spreading to five neighbouring countries, affecting up to 1.5 million people. In Central America, over 1.5 million people have seen their food supplies wither because of drought.
(d) Across the ocean, Asia is battling with floods. In Afghanistan, four years of drought and conflict are still affecting almost 10 million people. Finally, in North Korea, where agricultural production is limited not only by unfavourable weather but also adverse policies, WFP's operation to reach 6.4 million people is under funded, leading to reduced rations for three million people, with a further 1.5 million people likely to be cut off in January.
(e) The combined needs of roughly 50 million people cannot be shrugged off. WFP as well as hundreds of highly effective NGOs are finding it increasingly difficult to respond to world crises. Dependent on voluntary contributions, WFP is caught between the rising needs of millions of hungry people and government budgets, which are already stretched, and contending with a global economic downturn.
B) Asia Region: (1) DPR Korea
1) DPR Korea
(a) Pipeline shortages, seriously hampering WFP's efforts to assist the most needy from the middle of this year onwards, will result in stoppage of essential food aid to about half of the planned beneficiary caseload by November.
(b) About 3 million children and pregnant and nursing women will not be able to supplement their meagre government food allocations with cereal rations, especially in the harsh winter months. An additional 1.5 million persons will also be denied cereal rations from January, at a time when the economic reforms in the country have made life more uncertain for certain vulnerable groups (especially urban worker populations in the food deficit north and north east provinces of the country).
(c) Cereal contributions (72,000 tons) are urgently required to cover needs for WFP beneficiaries on the west coast during the last two months of the year. In addition, immediate pledges are required to ensure that the pipeline does not run dry during the initial months of 2003.
(d) Pledges for wheat flour and Dried Skimmed Milk contributions are also requested to ensure continued operation of the Local Food Production of enriched and fortified blended food for the youngest children and pregnant and nursing women into the early months of 2003.
C) West Africa Region: (1) Côte d'Ivoire
1) Côte d'Ivoire
(a) A Regional Inter-Agency meeting is currently taking place in Accra (Ghana). Its aim is to jointly determine the preparedness and response measures to be adopted in Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Ghana, Mali and Liberia. Participants in the meeting pointed out that although a ceasefire was signed by the insurgents on 17 October, populations were still vulnerable and needed food, water and sanitation, health care and shelter (especially displaced people around Bouake and Daloa).
(b) WFP participated in both the Inter-agency Logistics Mission to Yamoussoukro and the Inter-agency Mission to Bouake, led by OCHA. As a result of the two missions, WFP has identified caseloads of vulnerable and displaced persons in Bouake and surrounding transit sites to be assisted with food aid (estimated caseload ranging from 9,200 to 16,200 people).
(c) WFP launched an emergency IRA operation on 16 October for the local purchase of 309 tons of commodities to support approximately 10,000 vulnerable and displaced persons. As Chair of the OCHA Food Sector Group, WFP is coordinating food aid responses nationwide in partnership with NGOs including CARE, Africare, Caritas and ICRC. WFP will be examining response capacities through existing development infrastructures (community based school feeding and community based food production through food-for-work).
D) Southern Africa Region: (1) Regional overview, (2) Zimbabwe, (3) Zambia, (4) Lesotho, (5) Malawi, (6) Mozambique, (7) Swaziland, (8) Angola, (9) Namibia
1) Regional overview
(a) WFP food aid pipeline is looking generally healthy through December. During the period 12-18 October, WFP received confirmation of nearly USD 65 million toward the EMOP. With these contributions, the WFP Emergency Operation is currently 49 percent funded, with a shortfall of USD 256 million. A new cash contribution will help WFP to buy food regionally and move food quickly and efficiently to contribute to avert a potential catastrophe.
(a) The food security situation in Zimbabwe is critical in most districts. People who are not receiving food aid have been surviving on seasonal wild foods. Bread continues to be scarce due to a national shortage of wheat.
(b) 13,500 tons of a total 37,000 tons of US yellow maize have arrived in Zimbabwe and are being milled in Bulawayo before distribution. The Government has approved three new WFP implementing partners, bringing the total to ten. Beneficiary registration and verification is being finalized in newly operational districts to ensure that about two million people in 28 districts receive food aid in October.
(a) Uncertainty surrounding permissibility of Genetically Modified (GM) commodities continues to present significant pipeline difficulties in Zambia. Hiring of staff, contracting of transport, and program planning have been affected pending a clear decision on GM foods.
(b) WFP has drafted an allocation plan for 10,800 tons of maize in country, prioritised on the basis of vulnerability. Pre-positioning of another 9,500 tons of stocks in anticipation of the rainy season is also underway. WFP staff in Southern Province reported that some local initiatives are underway to alleviate extreme hunger situations including road construction and rehabilitation, conservation farming, and water conservation.
(a) WFP has completed milling 1,500 tons out of a scheduled 2,500 tons of maize. WFP distributed food aid to an estimated 62,000 beneficiaries in the period 9-15 October.
(a) In-country maize stocks are low. Priority is being given to accelerating the transport of food from the ports to avoid any disruptions to distributions. WFP completed orientation workshops for school teachers in five districts targeted for school feeding under the EMOP.
(a) WFP met with the National Disaster Management Institute to discuss the need to prioritise distributions for the most vulnerable populations in light of the fact that the WFP EMOP remains significantly under-resourced. They will meet again 18 October.
(b) WFP newly signed or renewed 24 letters of understanding this week with implementing partners.
(a) WFP is negotiating revised letters of understanding with implementing partners in order to cover distributions through February 2003. The pipeline for Swaziland is looking healthy in the short term with a full basket through December of maize, pulses, vegetable oil and corn soya blend.
(a) WFP remains extremely concerned by the current funding status of its PRRO for Angola. WFP has only received 26 percent of the USD 233 million needed to keep operations running in Angola until the end of 2003. WFP's stock of maize, the main component of rations, will run out in December. Urgent new donations are needed immediately to avoid major disruption in operations in January 2003.
(b) Present food stocks in Angola are not sufficient for the necessary pre-positioning to avoid disruption in deliveries during the rainy season. WFP needs to create buffer stocks of at least 12,000 tons of food in locations that will most probably be cut off because of the poor infrastructure conditions, mainly derelict roads and bridges. This pre-positioning will be delayed.
(c) In addition, 8,500 tons of food are blocked in Angola's ports due to non-payment of customs fees and charges by the Angolan Government. As part of the agreement with WFP, the Government of Angola committed to pay the incurred customs clearance charges, as well as the customs processing fees on the consignments. October distributions in the provinces are being affected by the delay and many beneficiaries will not receive beans in October. A further 48,000 tons of urgently needed maize is expected to arrive in Angola by the end of October.
(d) WFP is now distributing food in all Family Reception Areas (FRAs), including Cambale in Kuanza Sul. Two trucks transporting 40 tons of food reached the Cambale FRA near Mussende from Lobito despite extremely poor road conditions and broken bridges. This was the only FRA in the country where WFP had been unable to do distributions due to the extremely poor access conditions. This food is enough for about one week for the 12,000 beneficiaries. Urgent arrangement of further transport is underway so that full monthly distributions can be effected.
(e) Significant nutritional improvements have been observed in many formerly critical areas where WFP has been providing assistance, but new pockets of vulnerability are still being discovered
(a) WFP released food to UNHCR for urgent distribution to 1,500 Namibians returning from Botswana. These people are arriving in the northern drought-stricken Caprivi region in Namibia. According to UNHCR, almost 600 refugees have already returned and a further 900 are expected in the coming two months. Food assistance from the Namibian Government to this vulnerable population has been delayed, precipitating the urgent request from UNHCR.
(b) The Emergency Management Unit of the Prime Minister's office reported today that the Namibian Government has begun distributing food relief to 345,000 Namibian facing food shortages as a result of the drought. Tenders for 30,000 tons of various food commodities are reportedly under procurement and food distributions started during the week. The Namibian Government has not requested any external assistance for the drought operation.
E) Eastern and Central Africa Region: (1) Ethiopia, (2) Burundi, (3) Republic of Congo
(a) An increasing number of areas in the country are facing a dramatic deterioration of food security, with alarming reports coming from WFP monitors and other sources in East Hararghe, Arsi lowlands and parts of the East Shewa lowlands (in Oromiya region). These have all been added to the previous list of priority areas for immediate food aid interventions, which includes West Hararghe and Bale zone of Oromiya region, all of Afar region, Shinile zone of Somali Region and pocket areas of Amhara region such as Wag Hamra zone and the Abay Gorge area of South Gojjam.
(b) Rains have stopped too early in Tigray region and the eastern lowlands of Amhara region to compensate for their late onset and crop production in these areas will be down as a result. The situation remains mixed in midland and highland areas of Amhara region. Satellite imagery shows that rain continued to fall in highland parts of West and East Hararghe in early October, but crops have already failed in lowland areas of these zones. Rain continues in southern and western parts of Oromiya zone, and southern parts of SNNPR; some of these areas still need rain to the end of October for late-planted crops to mature. The results of the up-coming FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment, scheduled to begin 6 November, will be required for a definitive statement on crop production to be made. This assessment will complement the annual multi-agency needs assessment, which will also start in early November.
(c) Over 120,000 tons of WFP food will arrive at Djibouti port in October, for the drought EMOP and refugee and development projects. Of this total, 50,000 tons will be delivered to the Emergency Food Security Reserve (EFSR) as repayment of loans. The physical stock of the EFSR, as of 18 October, is 95,500 tons. With expected repayments, it will reach a level of 156,000 tons by the end of October. In November an additional 64,000 tons will be repaid by WFP, but a substantial drawdown of 50,000 tons or more will be required soon to cover at least the most urgent of the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission distribution needs for November.
(d) In September, as a result of limited food aid resources, only 65,000 tons of the required 87,000 tons was available for distributions. This amount covered the needs of 5.2 million beneficiaries (at a ration rate of 12.5 kg). For October, against the needs of 6.2 million beneficiaries, totalling 78,000 tons, only 50,000 tons of WFP food has been available for distributions, and allocations could only go to the highest priority areas. So far this month, 27,000 tons of food have been dispatched. Donors are urged to confirm pledges already announced so that food can be made available for distributions. Further donations are urgently sought to cover the substantial needs of the first quarter of 2003.
(a) Due to the recent fighting in Ulvira (DR Congo), a number of Congolese refugees started crossing the border into Burundi. WFP meets regularly with UNHCR, OCHA and implementing partners to identify and address the urgent needs of the new refugees, who are currently staying with host communities or in transit camps in Gatumba and Cibitoke.
(b) According to UNHCR, approximately 12,0000 Congolese refugees have been registered between 12 and 17 October. The refugees, who arrived mostly by foot and with basic belongings, crossed the border through six main entry points: Kiliba, Gatumba, Unda, Buganola, Rubombo and Cibitoke. WFP is currently providing emergency food aid assistance to 9,500 refugees and will conduct verification and rapid refugee needs assessment with UNHCR next week.
(c) Although it is not yet clear for how long the refugees will stay in Burundi, WFP together with all relief agencies are currently working on an inter-agency emergency plan to respond to the ongoing crisis. WFP is urging the dispatch of food to replenish low stocks inside the country.
(d) The general security situation in Burundi is slightly improving since the signing of a cease-fire agreement between the Government and rebel factions of FNL and FDD. Nevertheless, fighting is still continuing in the Eastern Province of Ruyigi bordering with Tanzania, while at the same time FNL attacks against administrative authorities continue. In addition, the worsening situation in neighbouring DRC following the withdrawal of Rwandan and Ugandan troops is arousing serious security concerns in Burundi. Rebel attacks on the capital resumed during week 41 and 7 persons were killed in separate attacks carried out at Musaga, Kibenga, and Kanyosha, three peripheral suburbs of Bujumbura town. Most of the populations living in the communes of Nyabisinda and Kinyinya, considered to be among the unstable, have moved to Tanzania or to neighbouring provinces.
(e) From 7 to 13 October, WFP continued to distribute the Seeds Protection Ration (SPR) in collaboration with CARE. 1,360 tons of food were distributed to 122,600 persons in Bujumbura Rural, Muramvya, Rutana, Makamba, Ruyigi and Muyinga provinces. The SPR distribution was completed in 6 provinces out of the 10 prioritised provinces planned. As of 13 October, over 4,900 tons were distributed to 450,000 beneficiaries. However, due to insecurity, the planned SPR distribution to 8,200 persons in Nyabisinda commune, in the Ruyigi province, was cancelled.
(f) WFP continues to provide assistance to Congolese refugees through General Food Distributions, repatriates returning from Tanzania with return packages, and support malnourished people in Supplementary and Therapeutic Feeding Centres (TFCs and TFCs).
3) Republic of Congo
(a) On 29 September, the Ninja rebels attacked a cargo train in Goma-Tsetse, Pool region, about 45 Km west of Brazzaville. Nine persons were killed and several injured. Three days earlier, a private transportation truck was attacked by armed people, killing one person around 45 Km from Brazzaville towards Kinkala.
(b) Due to the increased number of IDPs from the Pool region in Brazzaville, the humanitarian community has recommended a new census so that the newly arrived IDPs are considered in future humanitarian assistance. At the same time, about 23,000 IDPs who fled fighting in Mfilou area several months ago returned home during the month of September. They have received a first food delivery as a return package. A second and last food distribution is due to take place in October.
(c) During the month of September, WFP assisted almost 15,000 vulnerable people, mainly IDPs, under various programmes. Quantities of food distributed in Brazzaville during September have decreased compared to August due to the railway traffic irregularity. As of 30th September, WFP had assisted over 39,000 IDPs from the Pool region, providing them with 1,200 tons of food in Brazzaville, Bouenza, Lekoumou and Plateaux regions.
F) West and Central Asia Region: (1) Afghanistan
(a) The security situation has been calm across the country during the last week, except in the northern area (Mazari Sharif) where sporadic incidents of conflict among the local factions were reported.
(b) From 9 to 15 October, more than 806,000 vulnerable people received at least 5,500 tons of food through various WFP programme activities. This includes 41,000 beneficiaries who received 412 tons of food through Food for Work (FFW) and Food for Asset creation projects. These activities have helped allow a supply of potable and agricultural water as well as easy access to markets and hospitals for local communities. Three new projects were approved, with a WFP commitment of 2,700 tons for distribution to 76,000 beneficiaries.
(c) In addition, 250,000 beneficiaries, mainly children received 1,200 tons of food through the WFP Food for Education programme. WFP observed that returnees are encouraging their children to go to schools to receive food assistance, and as a result school enrolment and attendance rates are increasing at a steady pace.
(d) Meanwhile, the number of returnees has been steadily reducing. 14,000 IDPs and refugees have returned from Iran and Pakistan during the last week. 55,200 malnourished people were assisted through WFP Supplementary Feeding Programme.
(e) WFP has also reached 201,000 vulnerable people under its bakery projects. The quality of bread has improved in most of the bakeries. Finally, WFP continued food distribution to Afghan civil servants, to fulfil its outstanding commitments. As of 15 October, over 270,000 civil servants had been supported under the current emergency operation.
(f) Last week, the UN Joint Logistics Centre (UNJLC) organized a mission to Central Highlands to review the current road conditions, identify the locations for base camps and workshops, confirm the implementation plan for snow clearing and identify any shortfalls within the current plan. The mission comprised engineers and representatives from UNJLC, WFP, UNOPS, the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, and the Ministry of Public Welfare. NGOs also joined the mission at specific intervals to present their current projects and plans for snow clearing.
G) Middle East Region: (1) Palestinian Territories
1) Palestinian Territories
(a) On 9 October, a UN inter-agency technical assessment mission, led by Assistant Emergency Relief Coordinator Ross Mountain, arrived in Jerusalem to look into the deteriorating humanitarian situation in the occupied Palestinian Territories. The mission is expected to spend 10 days in Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza and to produce a humanitarian plan of action for the occupied territories. It will also follow up on the other recommendations made by the Secretary-General's Personal Humanitarian Envoy, Catherine Bertini, after her mission to the region in mid-August. WFP and FAO have agreed to take the lead role in the Food Security operational group.
(b) Despite the recent confirmation of an important new contribution, WFP remains concerned by the current funding status of its EMOP 10190.0. A monthly food allocation plan has been made taking into account in-country stock and confirmed shipments, up to and including November. There are however shortfalls in pulses, sugar, Wheat Soya Blend and High Energy Biscuits.
(c) The security situation has reportedly deteriorated in the southern part of the Gaza strip on 6-7 October. Transportation between the Northern and Southern regions of the Gaza strip continues to be hindered by irregular opening of the Abu-Houli checkpoint. WFP partner Terre-des-Hommes reported a significant increase in the number of admissions of severely malnourished children in its clinic.
(d) Following an assessment of the humanitarian condition in Nablus (West Bank), WFP decided to carry out two rounds of Emergency Distributions to 10,000 families in Nablus City, during October an November. The NGO PARC has already commenced an emergency distribution targeting 2,500 families. Most of the main roads within Nablus city are blocked. The Ministry of Education reports facing great obstacles in resuming the educational process.
(e) Two Palestinian farmers were killed by settlers near Nablus and Tulkarm while harvesting olives in their lands, which lie close to Israeli settlements. Moreover, as a result of the new security wall that Israel is constructing to separate the West Bank from Israel proper, thousands of acres in Tulkarm, Jenin and Qalqilieh will become out of reach to Palestinian landowners.
(f) During the first half of October, over 67,300 beneficiaries received 1,140 tons of WFP food. This includes food distributions undertaken in the West Bank, in collaboration with PARC and CRS, benefiting 20,200 vulnerable people. In Gaza area, almost 52,300 people received WFP assistance in collaboration with PARC, CRS and CHF.
H) Latin America and Caribbean Region: (1) Ecuador, (2) Honduras, (3) Nicaragua, (4) Paraguay, (5) other countries
(a) The National Geophysical Institute reported an increase of the volcano Tungurahua's activity on 1-3 October. An explosion was registered on 2 October, during which an ash cloud reached an altitude of 7 kilometres. The population surrounding the volcano has been severely affected. Crops, livestock and houses are continuously affected, leading to a deteriorating food security.
(b) A yellow alert was declared by Civil Defense in the district of Baños (Tungurahua province) and an orange alert for the rest of the areas near the hazardous zones. WFP in joint coordination with UNDP and the Government performed a rapid Emergency Needs Assessment in the areas affected by the Tungurahua volcano. The results of this assessment will be released shortly.
(c) According to the Ministry of Agriculture, almost 4,300 families (of which 3,075 are from the Quero district), 3,500 hectares of pastures and crops, were affected by ash rain. Since the volcano's eruption, 300 food insecure families have migrated to urban areas.
(a) The second food distribution to drought-affected households in 66 communities in 18 municipalities is planned for the coming weeks, and will be carried out in coordination with UNICEF and CCF. UNICEF will take care of utensil procurement, as well as of technical and nutritional surveillance. CCF will carry out the distributions, monitoring and reporting in the Francisco Morazan area.
(a) WFP in coordination with UNICEF, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health will sign an agreement to temporarily assist 10,000 expectant and nursing women and 7,500 children under two in the northern region. This area has been seriously affected by the coffee crisis. Assistance will take place from October to December.
(b) WFP will also provide food assistance to over 700 children under six years in the municipalities of El Tuma, La Dalia and San Ramon. Under its FFW programme, WFP will continue to distribute food to over 8,200 families of small coffee farmers in 27 municipalities throughout the country. 384 tons of food will be delivered in the provinces of Matagalpa, Jinotega, Nueva Segovia and Madriz.
(a) An extended drought has affected the provinces of Alto Paraguay, Boqueron and Canindeyuin in western Paraguay. According to IFRC, there is a desperate need for assistance as food stocks have run out and water sources have dried up following two years of drought. During the last eight months, there has been no rain and the food security situation has deteriorated rapidly. On 2 October a National State of Emergency was declared. In Boqueron the drought has had a particularly negative impact on agriculture, affecting almost 5,000 rural indigenous farming families living mainly on subsistence crops.
5) Other countries
(a) According to press releases, violent rainstorms killed 3 persons in Chile during the weekend of 12 October. Reports relate these storms to El Niño. Severe floods damaged approximately 3,000 houses.
(b) Rains have also caused heavy flooding in the southern area of Argentina forcing the evacuation of approximately 2,000 persons. The province of Rio Negro was declared a zone of disaster by the authorities. Shelters were set up in schools, community centres and gymnasiums for those evacuated.
I) Eastern Europe Region: (1) North Caucasus
1) North Caucasus
The WFP Executive Director Mr. James T. Morris, visited Russia from 8 to 11 October at the invitation of the Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov. The main purpose of the visit was to invite Russian participation in WFP as a donor. Russian officials stated that Russia is prepared to play a more active role in WFP and is committed to make its first contribution of 30,000 tons of wheat to one of WFP's major operations. Following the visit of Mr. Morris, the details of the Russian contribution to WFP will be finalised.
1. The number of the registered IDPs in Ingushetia has slightly decreased over the last two weeks. According to the Danish Refugee Council (DRC), over 110,700 IDPs are currently registered in Ingushetia. The IDP population living in private sector has decreased, while increasing in the spontaneous settlements evidently due to the inability of many IDPs to pay the house rent. According to "Vesta"/UNHCR, individual movements monitored at the administrative border between Ingushetia and Chechnya, showed that 323 IDPs returned to Chechnya, while 49 arrived to Ingushetia during the first half of October.
2. From 1 to 15 October, WFP distributed over 500 tons of food to 50,800 beneficiaries in Ingushetia through its implementing partner NGOs, namely DRC, Islamic Relief and Saudi Arabian Red Crescent Society.
1. On 10 October, an explosion in the building of Zavodskoy District Department of the Ministry of Interior in Grozny resulted in 23 deaths and 17 injuries of militiamen. The Chechen Government plans to prepare temporary accommodation for 4,000 IDPs in Grozny by the end of the year. The funds allocated for this purpose will be used for reconstruction of hostels.
2. From 1 to 15 October, almost 1,100 tons of food were distributed in Chechnya to 73,200 beneficiaries through relief distribution. WFP's School feeding programme in Chechnya is implemented by Islamic Relief, DRC, Centre for Peacemaking and Community Development, Chechen Refugee and Displaced Persons Committee and covers Grozny city, Grozny Rural, Achkhoy-Martan and Sunzha, and Gudermes regions. The programme covers 157 schools, representing over 42,000 primary schoolchildren. WFP's FFW activities carried out by People In Need Foundation in Grozny involve currently 900 participants (about 4,500 beneficiaries).
Note: All tonnage figures in this report refer to metric tons.
(End WFP Emergency Report No 42).