Polio this week as of 8 May 2019

Report
from Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Published on 08 May 2019 View Original
  • With recent introduction to the immunization coverage activities in Zimbabwe and Mongolia, at least 1 dose of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) is now available worldwide in 126 countries. IPV consists of inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three poliovirus types, producing antibodies in the blood to all types. In the event of infection, these antibodies prevent the spread of the virus to the central nervous system and protect against paralysis. Read press release here.

  • Summary of new viruses this week: Pakistan—three wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases and five WPV1-positive environmental samples; Nigeria—one circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2)-positive environmental sample; and, Niger—one cVDPV2 isolated from a healthy community. See country sections below for more details.

Afghanistan

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. There are seven WPV1 cases reported in 2019 from Afghanistan. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2018 remains 21.
  • The Technical Advisory Group for polio eradication (TAG) met on 15-16 January 2019 to assess the progress made towards polio eradication in Afghanistan in 2018 and made recommendations for the way forward in 2019.
  • Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Pakistan

  • Three wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been confirmed: two from Lahore district in Punjabprovince and one from Bannu district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The cases have onset of paralysis on 2, 17 and 19 April 2019, respectively.
  • Five WPV1-positive environmental samples were reported in the past week: one from DG Khan district and one from Multan district in Punjab province; one from Mardan district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province; one from Orangi Town in Karachi district, Sindh province; and one from Islamabad district in the Federal Capital Territory. The samples were collected between 8-18 April 2019. So far in 2019, a total of 107environmental positive samples have been reported. Full year 2018 total remains 140.
  • Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Nigeria

  • No cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 have been reported in the past week. There are seven cVDPV2 cases reported in 2019 so far. The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2018 remains 34.
  • One cVDPV2-positive environmental sample was reported this week in Ilorin south, Kwara State. The sample was collected on 10 April 2019.
  • No cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has been reported in the country since the one detected from Borno State with a date of onset of paralysis on 21 August 2016.
  • Recent confirmation of spread of one of the cVDPV2 outbreaks, both within Nigeria and internationally, underscores the urgent need to fill remaining vaccination gaps in the ongoing outbreak response, and to optimize the geographic extent and operational quality of mOPV2 response.
  • At the same time, outbreak response to WPV1 continues, including efforts to address surveillance and immunity gaps in parts of Borno State.
  • Read our Nigeria country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Lake Chad Basin

  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported in the past week. One cVDPV2 was isolated from a healthy community contact in Magaria, Zinder State. The sample was collected on 16 March 2019.
  • The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2018 reported in Niger in 2018 is ten. The outbreak is genetically-linked to the cVDPV2 outbreak originating in Jigawa, Nigeria. Virus was isolated from children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) from Zinder region, located in the south of Niger and on the border with Nigeria, with dates of onset of paralysis ranging from 18 July through 5 December 2018.
  • Active case finding for additional AFP cases is continuing, and additional surveillance measures such as increasing the frequency and extent of environmental surveillance and community sampling of healthy individuals is being expanded.

Central Africa

Horn of Africa

  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported this week. So far, one cVDPV2 case has been reported in Somalia in 2019.
  • The Horn of Africa is currently affected by separate outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) and type 3 (cVDPV3), reporting both AFP cases and environmental positive samples.
  • Read our and Kenya country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts video.

Papua New Guinea

  • The Papua New Guinea Polio Outbreak Response Report 2018 is online. The report summarizes the accomplishments of the Government of Papua New Guinea, with support from the World Health Organization, UNICEF, Rotary, the Government of Australia and New Zealand and other partners and donors in responding to the polio outbreak.
  • Planning is underway for the next steps of the outbreak response, focusing on both vaccination and surveillance for polioviruses.
  • Read our Papua New Guinea country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Mozambique

  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreak has been reported this week. The total number of cases in 2018 remains 1.
  • In addition to the confirmed case, the same virus was also isolated from two healthy community contacts, reported on 10 and 17 December 2018.
  • In January 2017, a single VDPV2 virus had been isolated from a 5-year old boy with AFP, also from Zambézia province (Mopeia district). Outbreak response was conducted in the first half of 2017 with monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2).
  • Read our Mozambique country page to see information on cases, surveillance and response to the developing outbreak.

Indonesia

  • No circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) cases were reported this week.
  • In total, three genetically-linked circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) isolates were detected from Papua province: a cVDPV1 from an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case, with onset of paralysis on 27 November 2018, and two cVDPV1 isolates from healthy community contacts, collected on 24 January and 13 February 2019. This outbreak is not linked to the cVDPV1 currently affecting neighbouring Papua New Guinea.