Afghanistan + 6 more

Polio this week as of 13 March 2018

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Polio this week as of 13 March 2018 New on www.polioeradication.org: For International Women’s Day, we highlighted the critical role that women play in global polio eradication efforts. Dr Adele Daleke Lisi Aluma works to reach children who have never been vaccinated, whilst in Somalia, women are the face of polio eradication. In Nigeria, dedicated female mobilizers are ending polio, one home at a time.
We also launched the Gender and Polio section of our website.
On the WHO Instagram, and on Twitter at @WHOAfghanistan, see the March polio vaccination campaign in Afghanistan from start to finish.

The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) Polio Working Group recently met in Geneva, Switzerland, to review global progress against polio. The group reviewed and endorsed the main elements of the Post-Eradication Strategy (PCS) currently being developed at the request of Member States, aimed at ensuring the availability of core functions to sustain a polio-free world after global certification (such as outbreak response capacity, surveillance, immunization and containment). The PCS will be presented in April to the full SAGE, and to Member States at the World Health Assembly (WHA) in May. The group also reviewed current outbreak response protocols to vaccine-derived poliovirus, and agreed with a proposed plan to harmonize recommendations on immunization schedules in countries with Polio Essential Facilities (PEFs – facilities that will continue to handle poliovirus stock under appropriate containment).

Summary of newly-reported viruses this week: Afghanistan: Advance notifications have been received of two new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1), one occurring in Kunar province, and one in Kandahar province. Three new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) positive environmental samples have been reported in Nangarhar province. Pakistan: One new WPV1 positive environmental sample has been reported in Balochistan province. Democratic Republic of the Congo: Two cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) reported, one from Tanganyika province, and one from Haut Lomami province.

See country-specific sections for further details.

Afghanistan

  • Advance notifications have been received of two new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1), one occurring in Kunar province, and one in Kandahar province.
  • This will raise the total number of officially reported WPV1 cases in Afghanistan in 2018 to five.
  • Three new WPV1 positive environmental samples were reported this week in Nangarhar province, two in Jalalabad district, collected on 24 February, and one in Behsud district, collected on 25 February.
  • Supplementary immunization days are currently ongoing, with vaccinators aiming to vaccinate children across 34 provinces using bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV). The days are synchronized with a campaign taking place in Pakistan, part of efforts to interrupt transmission of the virus across the shared border.
  • Follow the campaign on the WHO Instagram, and on Twitter at @WHOAfghanistan.
  • Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Pakistan

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.
  • The total number of officially reported WPV1 cases in Pakistan in 2017 remains eight. There are no cases reported in 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Zhob district, Balochistan province, with onset on 15 November 2017.
  • One new WPV1 positive environmental sample was reported this week, collected in Quetta district, Balochistan province, on 13 February.
  • Supplementary immunization days are currently ongoing, with vaccinators aiming to vaccinate children across six provinces using bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV). The days are synchronized with a campaign taking place in Afghanistan, part of efforts to interrupt transmission of the virus across the shared border.
  • Follow the campaign on Twitter at @WHOPakistan.
  • Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Nigeria

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.
  • The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 is four and no cases have been reported in 2017 or 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Monguno Local Government Area, Borno, with onset on 21 August 2016.
  • Nigeria continues to implement an emergency response to the detected WPV1 strain and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) strains affecting the country (last detected in 2016).
  • The next immunization days are planned for early April, synchronized with campaigns in countries across the Lake Chad basin.
  • As part of the emergency response, subnational surveillance continues to be strengthened.

Lake Chad Basin

The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (Borno state, Nigeria in 2016) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) (Borno and Sokoto states in 2016) continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin.
Emergency outbreak response efforts continue across the Lake Chad basin, together with activities to fill subnational surveillance gaps across the region.
These activities include efforts to vaccinate children at markets, in internally displaced persons camps, and at international borders.
The next set of supplementary immunization days are planned for early April, synchronized across countries in the Lake Chad basin.
Read the latest polio update from the Lake Chad basin to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Central Africa

Two new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. One case was reported in Mulongo district, Haut Lomami province, with onset of paralysis on 16 January, and one case was reported in Manono district, Tanganyika province, with onset of paralysis on 19 January. These are the first reported cases of 2018.
In response to recent cases, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) recently announced the cVDPV2 outbreak ongoing in the country a Public Health Emergency of National Concern. The Ministry of Health, supported by WHO and partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, remains fully committed to outbreak response, including use of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) across the country, in line with internationally-agreed outbreak response protocols.
Children living in the districts where the latest cases were reported were last targeted with mOPV2 during December vaccination days. The next campaign will take place following the completion of microplanning exercises to ensure high vaccination coverage during campaigns.
Surveillance and immunization activities continue to be strengthened in neighbouring countries.
Read the latest polio update from the DRC to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.

Horn of Africa

  • Circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) is confirmed in Somalia.
  • Three vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2s (VDPV2s) were isolated from two environmental samples collected in Hamarweyn district, Banadir province (Mogadishu), one on 4 January, and one on 11 January 2018. These latest isolates are genetically linked to previously isolated VDPV2s from 2017, collected on 22 October and 2 November from environmental samples collected from Waberi district, Banadir province. In total, four environmental samples (with seven unique virus sequences) positive for cVDPV2 have been collected in Somalia between October 2017, and January 2018.
  • No cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with this cVDPV2 have been detected at this time – the viruses were all isolated from environmental samples.
  • Surveillance for AFP cases in the area is being strengthened.
  • Since detection of the initial isolates in 2017, outbreak response campaigns in line with internationally-agreed guidelines have been implemented, consisting of two large-scale immunization activities. A third activity is planned for March 2018.
  • WHO and its partners are continuing to support local public health authorities in conducting field investigations and risk assessments to more clearly assess any potential risk of circulation of the identified cVDPV2, and to continue to support the outbreak response and strengthening of disease surveillance.
  • Read our Somalia country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.

The Middle East

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week.
  • The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in Syria in 2017 remains 74.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Boukamal district, with onset on 21 September 2017.
  • A nationwide immunization round utilizing bivalent OPV (bOPV) is ongoing in 13 governorates. The campaign aims to reach 2.4 million children aged less than five years.
  • Immunization activities utilizing inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) are ongoing in accessible areas of Aleppo governorate; a total of 5,427 children have already been reported as vaccinated in Ein Arab district. This is the first vaccination campaign to reach the area in two years.
  • Immunization activities have commenced in Tell Abyad district, Raqqa governorate aiming to reach 6,500 children aged 2-23 months.
  • Read the latest polio update from Syria to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.