Polio this week as of 10 April 2018

Report
from Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Published on 10 Apr 2018 View Original

Polio this week as of 10 April 2018

  • New on www.polioeradication.org: Bill Gates and Aliko Dangote support polio eradication efforts in Nigeria. We talk with Professor Rose Leke, Chair of the African Regional Certification Commission, and with Dr Ondrej Mach, who explains why we are developing new polio vaccines for the post-eradication era.

  • The report following the February meeting of the Global Commission for Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) is now published and available here. The GCC came together to review the criteria that will need to be met to achieve global certification of eradication.

  • In Kenya, advance notification of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVPDV2) detected from an environmental sample is being investigated (to be officially reflected in next week’s global data). A cVDPV2 was isolated from an environmental sample collected on 21 March 2018 from Nairobi, linked to the cVDPV2 confirmed from Mogadishu, Somalia. No cases of paralysis associated with this virus have been detected, however a risk assessment is ongoing as is planning for a potential regional response.

  • Summary of newly-reported viruses this week: Afghanistan: Two new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) positive environmental samples have been reported in Kandahar province. Pakistan: One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) positive environmental sample has been reported in Sindh province. See country-specific sections for further details.

Afghanistan

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) have been confirmed this week.
  • The total number of officially reported WPV1 cases in Afghanistan in 2018 is seven.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) occurred in Ghaziabad district, Kunar province, with onset of paralysis on 3 March.
  • Two new WPV1 positive environmental samples have been reported this week, both collected in Kandahar district, Kandahar province, on 5 March.
  • Supplementary immunization days are currently ongoing, during which vaccinators aim to vaccinate children across 24 provinces using bOPV.
  • Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Pakistan

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) have been confirmed this week.
  • The total number of officially reported WPV1 cases in Pakistan in 2018 is one.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) occurred in Dukki district, Balochistan province, with onset of paralysis on 8 March.
  • One new WPV1 positive environmental sample has been reported this week, collected in Jacobabad district, Sindh province, on 7 March.
  • Supplementary immunization days are currently ongoing, during which vaccinators aim to vaccinate children across eight provinces using bOPV.
  • Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Nigeria

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.
  • The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 is four and no cases have been reported in 2017 or 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Monguno Local Government Area, Borno, with onset on 21 August 2016.
  • Nigeria continues to implement an emergency response to the detected WPV1 strain and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) strains affecting the country (last detected in 2016).
  • The latest immunization activities took place last week, synchronized with campaigns in countries across the Lake Chad basin.
  • As part of the emergency response, subnational surveillance continues to be strengthened.

Lake Chad Basin

  • The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (Borno state, Nigeria in 2016) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) (Borno and Sokoto states in 2016) continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin.
  • Emergency outbreak response efforts continue across the Lake Chad basin, together with activities to fill subnational surveillance gaps across the region.
  • These activities include efforts to vaccinate children at markets, in internally displaced persons camps, and at international borders.
  • The latest immunization activities took place last week, synchronized across countries in the Lake Chad basin.
  • Read the latest polio update from the Lake Chad basin to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.

Central Africa

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
  • The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in the DRC in 2018 remains three.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Mulongo district, Haut Lomami province, with onset of paralysis on 31 January.
  • The Ministry of Health, supported by WHO and partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, remains fully committed to outbreak response, including use of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) across the country, in line with internationally-agreed outbreak response protocols.
  • Children living in the districts where the latest cases were reported were last targeted with mOPV2 during December vaccination days. The next campaign will take place following the completion of microplanning exercises to ensure high vaccination coverage during campaigns.
  • Surveillance and immunization activities are being strengthened in neighbouring countries.
  • Read the latest polio update from the DRC to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.

Horn of Africa

  • No new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) positive environmental samples were reported in the past week in Somalia.
  • The most recent sample (by date of collection) was reported in Hodan district, Banadir province collected on 22 February.
  • Before this most recent sample, three cVDPV2s were isolated from two environmental samples collected in Hamarweyn district, Banadir province (Mogadishu), Somalia, one on 4 January, and one on 11 January 2018. These latest isolates are genetically linked to previously isolated VDPV2s from 2017, collected on 22 October and 2 November from environmental samples collected from Waberi district, Banadir province. In total, four environmental samples (with seven unique virus sequences) positive for cVDPV2 were collected in Somalia between October 2017, and January 2018.
  • No cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with this cVDPV2 have been detected at this time – the viruses were all isolated from environmental samples.
  • Since detection of the initial isolates in 2017, outbreak response campaigns in line with internationally-agreed guidelines have been implemented, consisting of two large-scale immunization activities.
  • Surveillance for AFP cases in the area is being strengthened, and planning for the next immunization campaign is ongoing.
  • WHO and its partners are continuing to support local public health authorities in conducting field investigations and risk assessments to more clearly assess any potential risk of circulation of the identified cVDPV2, and to continue to support the outbreak response and strengthening of disease surveillance.
  • Read our Somalia country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.

The Middle East

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week.
  • The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in Syria in 2017 remains 74. There are no cases reported in 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Boukamal district, with onset on 21 September 2017.
  • Read the latest polio update from Syria to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.