INEE framing paper: Education finance in states affected by fragility

Report
from Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies
Published on 28 Oct 2008 View Original
Millions of children living in states affected by fragility are denied the right to education or have their education interrupted due to conditions in which they live and the inadequate funding arrangements for their education in such contexts. Thiss framing paper for the 2008 INEE Policy Roundtable provides analysis, lessons learnt and recommendations on the financing of education in states affected by fragility. While this paper focuses to a large degree on aid to education, such external financing must be considered in the context of domestic financing for education. In this paper, and in the forthcoming Policy Roundtable we seek to address the following questions:

- What level of funds currently flow for education to states affected by fragility?

- Are these sufficient to meet global needs and ensure progression towards achieving the education Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education for All (EFA) agenda?

- Do existing financing mechanisms respond appropriately to needs in fragile contexts? What lessons can be learnt from these mechanisms to inform future practice?

- What innovative financing mechanisms can be applied to education in fragile contexts?

- How do both existing and innovative/emerging financing mechanisms contribute to statebuilding, harmonization and alignment?

In section 1, the paper discusses the current state of financing in terms of both official development assistance (ODA) and humanitarian funding, focusing on the trends and recent commitments to education, both from traditional Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC) donors and from emerging donors (both private and bilateral). Section 2 analyses the different existing modalities for financing education, drawing together lessons learnt from recent experience and relating modalities to both the DAC categories of fragile states, and the DAC Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations1 (OECD, 2007). The section focuses on the extent to which modalities are appropriate to the context, aligned with local priorities and support state-building processes. The final section explores potential new and innovative models for financing education in states affected by fragility, assessing the extent to which they can fill funding gaps, bridge the transition between humanitarian and development financing, and support state-building and harmonization between donors.

A resilient state is one in which the state has the institutional capacity and will to make and enforce policies on behalf of it's citizens, and to implement state activities effectively. Fragility arises when states lack capacity, access to resources, legitimacy (acceptance of by it's citizens that the state has a right to rule), institutions and/or effective processes to uphold the social contract between themselves and their citizens. The OECD-DAC (2007) has developed four categories of fragile states dependent on corresponding levels of political will and capacity, as summarised in Table 1.