Afghanistan + 22 more

GICHD: Update on activities between Jan and Mar 2005

Originally published


1. During the first three months of the year 2005, the GICHD continued and consolidated its activities in the fields of operational assistance, research and support to instruments of international law. It also started its training initiative in mine action information management (see para. 4 and 11 below).


2. The first core activity of the GICHD is the provision of specific operational support and assistance to on-going mine action activities and programmes, including those run by the UN.

3. The Centre is active in the fields of information management, standardisa-tion, technical assistance and training, evaluation, and the facilitation of the exchange of information.


4. Information management is one of the key elements required for success in mine action programmes. The GICHD has focused its efforts in this area on the development and deployment of the Information Management for Mine Action (IMSMA). These efforts have resulted in the successful deployment of IMSMA in 41 programmes world-wide and its adoption as a de facto data handling standard for mine action.

5. In order to maximise the impact of information management in mine affected countries and take advantage of the synergies available between IMSMA and other systems, the Centre is now redefining its information management support role to include a comprehensive information management training pro-gramme. The new programme is no longer foucused on just the specifics of the IMSMA technology, but provides a systems approach to the overall management of information of all kinds in mine action. The goal of the programme is to assure the successful integration of proven information management techniques, systems such as IMSMA and other tools into day-to-day operations in the field.


6. During the reporting period, the IMSMA system was installed in Jordan, the 41st operational installation.

7. As of 31 March 2005, IMSMA was being used in 41 field programmes: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina (for the National Impact Survey), Burundi, Chad, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica (by OAS), Ecuador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon (National Demining Organisa-tion), Macedonia, Mauritania, with MINURSO in Western Sahara, in Mozambique, Nicaragua, Peru, Russian Federation (Chechnya, Ingushetia, Northern Ossetia), Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somaliland, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Thailand, with UNFICYP, UNIFIL, UNMEE, in Yemen and Zambia. Additional versions are running at various training sites at locations in France, Switzerland, the UK, and the US.

8. The IMSMA Re-Engineering Project was first conceived in 2003 in response to feed-back on the operation of the system received from the field. The goal of the project is to incorporate the latest technology advancements, improvements in data transfer methods (such as maXML) and most importantly the lessons learned by users in the field into an improved and easier to use information management tool for the field. The re-engineering project is currently operating on schedule and within the established budget. The first prototype delivery is scheduled for the fall of 2005.

9. The upcoming version of the IMSMA software will be provided in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian and Arabic. The system will incorporate a facility to assist users with translation into other local languages in the field. IMSMA translation support will include training materials in all six of the supported base languages.

10. The IMSMA Re-engineering Project and relevant translation work is funded by Switzerland.


11. The mine information management training aims to assist programmes with the integration of information management into their daily operations, with an emphasis on the sustainable use and support of IMSMA in the field. In order to achieve these objectives, the GICHD training focuses on the specific needs of individual programmes and staff members. Currently, the areas covered by information management training are: management; operations; database administration; data entry and data use; and the use of IMSMA in peace support operations (PSO).

12. In order to ensure that operational IMSMA installations are provided with training on a timely basis, participation in information management training courses is by invitation only. In addition, training is normally restricted to staff who currently work with IMSMA or who will work with it in the near future.

13. During the reporting period, the GICHD carried the following training courses:

a) The first "Introduction Course to Information Management in Mine Action" designed for operations and management staff of mine action centres took place between 7 and 11 March. Seven participants form Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Kosovo, Lebanon and Thailand attended; b) The second "Introduction Course to Information Management in Mine Action" was held between 14 and 18 March. Five trainees from Azerbaijan, Jordan, Thailand and Zambia were present.

Other on-site training is carried out by the Regional Support Centres (see para. 18 et sqq. below).


14. The Mine Action Data Sharing Project has now progressed from the design of a specification of the mine action extensible mark-up language to practical operational use as part of the handheld data collection project. It is now time to refine the specification in order to address a broader range of data transfer tasks and expand operational use of the mechanism to new data sharing projects. Now that an operational package using maXML as its data transfer mechanism is available in the field, the project will begin to concentrate on these new tasks. Efforts have already begun to develop a data sharing project involving the transfer of mine threat data to domains outside the immediate mine action community.

15. During the reporting period, work was begun on a significant update to the maXML data specification. This work is being accomplished in order to provide a more complete data transfer capability based on maXML as part of the IMSMA Re-Engineering Project. The update will result in an expansion of the specification that will incorporate all of the data elements in the existing IMSMA and the updated version.

16. While the use of information management tools is now widely accepted in mine action, computer based support tools are not yet fully integrated into field activities. One area that seems particularly well suited to the introduction of computer support is field data collection. Currently field survey data is collected on paper forms, which are normally transferred to a central support facility where they are entered in an information management system. This process often introduces errors in the data and can introduce significant delays between the time the data is collected and when it becomes available for the use of planners and field personnel. The introduction of automated systems to aid in the collection of the data, and its transfer to centralised information management systems, could greatly reduce the chance for transcription errors and the time required to make the data collected available for meaningful analysis and use.

17. The purpose of the Hand-held Field Data Collection Tool Project is to field test a hand-held computer based data collection support tool and to ana-lyse its impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of the process. During the reporting period, the collection of data regarding use of the currently deployed hand-held systems was continued in both Chile and Ecuador. This project is funded by Switzerland and the UK.


18. The GICHD established the Regional Support Centre (RSC) concept in 2002 as a way to address the need for on-going support to its IMSMA installations in the field. The RSCs provide first level user support, assist mine action centres in reviewing their internal information management processes as well as their information exchange and communication procedures, and with general support to information management. The RSCs also organise regional user focus group meetings, training courses, and facilitate general contacts between interested countries and the GICHD. Each RSC is staffed with one person.

19. The RSC concept has evolved since that time transforming the RSCs into a trusted and respected travelling extension of the Centre. While the RSCs retain a focus on activities designed to support IMSMA they also serve as local representatives of the GICHD for other projects and activities.

20. Over the next two years the RSCs will be challenged with completing a total upgrade of all of the existing IMSMA installations. As part of the IMSMA upgrade process the RSCs have already begun an updated training programme focused on information management and operations rather than the traditional information technology based approach to IMSMA training.

21. The Centre currently supports four Regional Support Centres:

a) The RSC Latin America, established in 2002 and based in Managua (Nicaragua) covers Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, and Suriname. It maintains technical contacts with the humanitarian demining programmes of the United States, the United Nations and the Organisation of American States (OAS).

b) The RSC Europe/Central Asia, established in 2003 and based in Geneva covers Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Kosovo, Macedonia, the Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, Tajikistan, and Ukraine. The RSC Europe/Central Asia also maintains technical contacts with the International Trust Fund (ITF), the South-East Europe Mine Action Co-ordination Council (SEEMACC), NATO and France.

c) The RSC Africa, established in 2003 and based in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) covers Angola, Chad, Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Guinea-Bis-sau, Mauritania, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, and Zambia. The RSC Africa also maintains technical contacts with the African Union and other humanitarian demining programmes and projects in the region.

d) The RSC Middle East/Northern Africa, established in late 2003 in Beirut (Lebanon) covers the following countries and territories: Eri-trea, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Pakistan, Puntland, Soma-liland, Sudan, Western Sahara, and Yemen.

22. During the reporting period, and besides routine work within the framework indicated above, the RSCs

a) provided assistance to a regional mine action conference in Cartagena, Colombia, in February; b) supported the Landmine Impact Survey conducted by the Survey Action Centre (SAC) in Angola; c) made an assessment visit to the Zambia Mine Action Centre (ZAMAC).

23. Cambodia, Sri Lanka and Thailand are currently supported by the GICHD office in Geneva. IMSMA support activities in this region do not currently justify the establishment of a full time RSC covering South-East and East Asia. Based upon activity levels and available funding the establishment of an RSC for this region will be periodically reviewed.

24. The activities of the RSCs are funded by Switzerland.


25. The International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) are prepared by the GICHD under a mandate from UNMAS. IMAS provide practitioners with an updated and revised framework of technical and procedural prescriptions for safe and effective mine action. A total of 38 IMAS have been endorsed so far.

26. As part of the on-going review process 14 new/existing IMAS were circulated to the IMAS Review Board in late 2004. The Review Board comments were consolidated and analysed at a meeting in UNMAS in February 2005, and have subsequently been returned to the Review Board with amended text for their final comment or approval.

27. Work continued on the development of new IMAS as follows:

a) Comments of the Review Board are currently being analysed and incorporated in the first draft of the IMAS on contracts;

b) The IMAS on national programmes and projects is awaiting comments from the Review Board; c) The IMAS on mechanical equipment is being developed, and it has initiated a discussion on the intended scope of IMAS in this field within the Review Board; d) The IMAS on evaluation is to follow completion of the GICHD Evaluation Study; e) The IMAS on training has been suspended, pending a training needs analysis study being developed by UNMAS.

28. The overall objective of the IMAS Outreach Programme is to assist mine affected countries to establish their own National Mine Action Standards (NMAS) based on the application of IMAS.

29. During the reporting period, the GICHD

a) worked with the Mine Action Programme for Afghanistan during February to complete a comprehensive second draft of Afghanistan Mine Action Standards (25 chapters); b) introduced IMAS and its philosophy at a Mines Advisory Group (MAG) programme managers meeting held in Bangkok in February, and to the Iraqi Mine Action Centre middle management training course in Amman in March; c) undertook information missions to Jordan and Cambodia to discuss assistance packages on the preparation and application of national standards.

30. IMAS-related activities are funded from contributions received from the UK, the Czech Republic and Finland.


31. Following a request from EUDEM, the GICHD started to integrate the specialist technical EUDEM website into its own web-based information system (


32. Based on the "Study of Mechanical Application in Demining" published in 2004, outreach presentations were conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon and South Sudan during the reporting period. This activity is funded by Norway, Sweden and the UK.


33. The use of Mine Dog Detection (MDD) has become a common methodology and can be a fast and efficient tool if implemented correctly. The use of animals for scent detection is, however, complex and difficult. History has shown that the use of dogs can become a costly and frustrating burden beyond what demining organisations are willing to risk, and MDD was discredited when expectations were not met. For this reason, the GICHD started its MDD programme in 2000.

34. In the Afghanistan Mine Dog Project, the GICHD carries out external quality control of the Remote Explosive Scent Tracing (REST) programme in this country. During the reporting period, preparation work was carried out in view of the next Quality Assurance mission scheduled for May 2005. This project is commissioned by UNMAS.

35. At the request of the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), the GICHD continued with the SIDA PAT Project that consists of a regular monitoring of the Cambodia Mine Action Centre (CMAC), its MDD programme, and the wider mine action sector in Cambodia. Preparation work for the next evaluation mission taking place in April 2005 was carried out during the reporting period.

36. At the request of Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), the GICHD continues to provide regular technical support to the NPA REST Programme in Angola. During the reporting period, four new dogs have been trained by GICHD staff. The Centre has also developed draft SOPs for REST in Angola. In addition, a software making the information gathering process more reliable is currently under development.

37. In order to facilitate the understanding of the various study results, the GICHD produced three films on MDD, which will become available in May 2005.


38. Within the framework of mine risk education outreach activities, the Centre carried out a special training course for staff of the Ethiopian MAC, as requested by the Ethiopian Mine Action Organisation (EMAO). This course focused on national mine risk education (MRE) standards and strategic planning for 2005. This course took place in January.

39. MRE outreach activities are funded by contributions received from Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and from private contributions.


40. The Technology Officer Project aims to provide an interface between field users and the research and development communities. The focus of this project is on the review of appropriate technologies and the requirements for mine action; on providing advice on priorities for test and evaluation of equipment; on assistance to test and evaluation efforts being undertaken in mine-affected countries; and on providing outreach on equipment requirements, capabilities and limitations.

41. During the reporting period, the Technology Officer

a) participated in the trial and demonstration of an US handheld multi-sensor mine detection system in Namibia;

b) completed a feature article entitled "Problem Soils and Their Effect on Metal Detector Performance"; c) provided technical advice on a wide variety of subjects including equipment requirements, proposal reviews, and specific studies; d) prepared, together with UNMAS, the second edition of the "Technology Bulletin" that will be published in April 2005.


42. The French Government requested GICHD to conduct evaluations of French-financed projects in Mozambique and Cambodia. During the reporting period, planning and preparation work was carried out; the respective evaluation missions are scheduled for May.

43. In a competitive tender process of UNOPS, the GICHD was selected to carry out the Evaluation of the Mine Action Co-ordination Centre of the United Nations Mission in Eritrea and Ethiopia (UNMEE). A draft report was presented to UNOPS and UNMAS in February, and a draft final report was subsequently submitted.

44. In late 2004, the GICHD was awarded the contract issued by UNOPS for the Review of Ten Years Assistance to Mine Action in Mozambique. Both, background research and the evaluation mission to Mozambique are completed. A first draft has been submitted to UNOPS and UNDP in Maputo.


45. The publication "A Guide to Mine Action" reflects current realities in a fast-developing humanitarian sector and serves as a source of information for decision-making, programme planning and research. Versions are available in English (ISBN 2.-88487-021-0), French (ISBN 2-88487-015-6) and Spanish (ISBN 2-88487-016-4). A Russian and Arabic version will become available in April and May 2005. Further translation (e.g. Farsi, Dari, Vietnamese) are under consideration. These publications are funded by Switzerland.


46. The Centre continued to undertake a series of research projects with the aim of improving quality, and to make mine action safer and more cost-effective. The results of these research projects form the basis for specific recommendations and guidelines for dissemination to the field in the form of special handbooks, training courses, etc.


47. In its research project on the practical use of mechanical systems and management of mechanised operations, work continued on the following sub-studies requested by UNMAS and is funded by Norway, Sweden, and the UK:

a) The project "Management of Mechanical Systems" aims to design a software tool to help programme managers establish specific causes why their mechanical assets might not be performing at optimum productivity. A narrative description of current procedures used in Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Thailand to assist the management of operations is being completed and will be published in summer 2005;

b) The Study on the Use of Anti-Mine Rollers in Mechanical Demin-ing will look at the best uses for rollers. Considering their relatively low purchase and maintenance costs, rollers are an attractive option for demining practitioners who are not prepared to spend huge sums on a tiller or flail system. Guidance on purchasing and fitting of rollers will also be given. During the reporting period, results from field studies in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Thailand were analysed. The relevant report will be published in summer 2005;

c) The study entitled "Magnets: A Tool for Mechanical Demining" is motivated by the conclusion of the "Study of Mechanical Application in Demining", which indicated that of all the obstacles faced by a manual deminer, the most time consuming to remove from within his lane are scrap metal fragments. Tests demonstrated that with the addition of a simple magnet, over 80 % of metal fragments can be removed prior to manual demining. The study on magnets will provide practical advice on the purchase and application of magnets to existing models of mechanical demining system. During the reporting period, a particular magnet configuration was tested by SWEDEC on behalf of the Centre. This test report, and the magnet study itself, will be published during in summer 2005;

d) The study "Mechanical Assistance: Residual Munitions Hazard" investigates possible circumstances where machines might leave residual hazards, and to determine if they add further risk to subsequent clearance activities carried out by manual deminers and dog teams. During the reporting period, research work carried on in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Croatia, South Africa, and the UK;

e) The study "Mechanical Application in Route Verification" looks into route clearance practices used to quickly clear routes and open them for essential supplies transports. During the reporting period, research was carried out in South Africa and Southern Sudan;

f) The study " The Environmental Effects of Mechanical Application in Demining" investigates cases where significant environmental damage from machine use has occurred, the nature of such damage, and ways of avoiding damage in the first place, as well as the amelioration of damage if it has been inflicted. During the reporting period, research work was carried out in Cambodia and in the Balkans.

48. The Study on Manual Mine Clearance aims to address efficiency and cost-effectiveness of manual demining. A working draft document has been produced and distributed to the Study Advisory Group, which will meet in mid-April. The study results will be published on the GICHD web site and as a condensed user handbook, after incorporation of the results from the Study Group meeting. The project has been requested by UNMAS and is financed by Finland and the UK.


49. The Centre continued its research work on the Remote Explosive Scent Tracing (REST) in 2005. REST is a process of taking scent from a source for remote analysis. The scent is obtained by using a pump to draw air containing scent or particles from the soil surface through an absorbent filter. Filters are analysed remotely using specially trained dogs or rats, or other natural or artificial odour sensing system. REST has the advantage of determining areas with no mine/UXO contamination.

50. The REST test and licensing methodology development project aims at developing a methodology that can be used when carrying out quality assurance and test/licensing of REST projects. Most of the testing has been completed in March, and a report as well as a handbook on Quality Assurance and Quality Control procedures are in preparation. The project is funded by the UK.

51. The REST Area Reduction Application Project will optimise the REST concept already used for road verification. It also aims to establish if it could be applied as an area reduction tool. Tests carried in 2004 produced negative results. Detailed analysis for reasons and causes continued during the reporting period. This project is funded by Norway, Sweden, and the UK.

52. The Rat REST Project aims to explore the use of rats as mine detection technology. Current work focuses on filter technology, sampling procedures, and environmental conditions during sampling. This project is carried out in conjunction with APOPO, which become operational with their animals in Mozambique. During the reporting period, APOPO and the GICHD continued preparing a publication that will summarise the state of knowledge on REST, and which will include an overview of the work performed by APOPO to date. This project is funded by Norway and Sweden.

53. In the REST Research Project, the GICHD aims to optimise scent trapping during sampling, release during analysis, and to prevent scent loss and cross contamination during storage and transportation. As a first result, new filter new filter material and storage containers have been developed. Recent tests, partly undertaken during the reporting period, confirm the increased quality of this equipment.

54. The Environmental Factors Study explores the relationship between MDD success and environmental factors (e.g. weather, soil chemistry). Analysis of relevant data sets continued during the reporting period. The final report is expected for late 2005. This project is commissioned by the UN.

55. The Operations Study uses time and motion procedures to explore the ways in which MDD are used operationally. Four case studies were being edited for final production as a GICHD publication during the reporting period. This project is funded by Norway and Sweden.


56. The study entitled "The Role of Indigenous Organisations in Mine Action" focuses on how best to create the conditions necessary for the formation of local mine action NGOs or commercial companies in mine-affected countries. The study was completed and is available on the GICHD website. Final publication of the Guide is due in summer 2005. The study was requested by UNMAS, and has been funded by Italy, the UK and UNMAS. 57. The study "Mine Action: Lessons and Challenges" aims to address questions on the success of international mine action over the past 15 years, on lessons learnt, the challenges for the future, etc. The study work is completed; publication is scheduled for mid-2005. This study is funded by the UK. 58. The Study of Capacity Development in Mine Action will look into the development of indigenous capacities in mine action. The study is just awaiting the addition of one outstanding country case study. Publication will be in hardcover and is slated for mid 2005. The study has been requested by UNDP and is funded by the UK. 59. The Study on the Role of Survey in Mine Action analyses the various types of survey used in mine action and their respective applicability and value. The study work is completed; a final editorial process is underway and the study is slated for hardcover printing in mid-2005. The study has been requested by UNMAS and is funded by the UK. 60. The Study on the Possible Synergies Between Mine Action and Small Arms Light Weapons Programmes (SALW) analyses the various types of mine action and SALW programmatic approaches and the possible synergies/areas of co-operation between the two. The respective work is underway, and completion is scheduled for autumn 2005. This study has been commissioned by the US Department of State and will become available in mid 2005.


61. The Study on the Evaluation of Field Programmes will establish a basic framework and standard methodology for field evaluations. A draft handbook has been prepared and is being reviewed internally. It will be available in autumn 2005. The end result for the study is scheduled for late 2005.


62. The GICHD supports the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention according to the mandate given by the States Parties in September 2001, which includes the Implementation Support Unit (ISU), the preparation and support of meetings, the provision of independent professional advice and assistance, and the offering of a documentation and resource database facility.

63. The Centre also provides independent technical input into international efforts to minimise human suffering caused by weapons and/or explosive remnants of war, which is covered by the on-going work of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW). It also follows the developments under CCW and was represented in relevant meetings in March.


64. The adoption by the States Parties of the Nairobi Action Plan has given the ISU clear and comprehensive direction for the post-Review Conference period. During this reporting period, the ISU commenced with support to the President, Co-Chairs, Contact Group Coordinators and individual States Parties in their pursuit of the aims of the Nairobi Action Plan. In particular, the ISU supported the Coordinating Committee in an ambitious effort to notify relevant States Parties of various opportunities to participate in the June meetings of the Standing Committees. The ISU also worked to compile the Co-Chairs’ programmes and prepare a comprehensive package of background materials for these meetings. 65. Certain Co-Chairs have launched particularly ambitious initiatives and the ISU has responded accordingly. For example, the Co-Chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance are attempting to assist the 24 most relevant States Parties in establishing concrete victim assistance objectives for the 2005-2009 period. This has involved the ISU developing a comprehensive information gathering tool for these States Parties to use and has seen the ISU provide substantive and organisational support to two regional conferences which will take place in April/May. 66. Preparations for 6th Meeting of the States Parties have commenced and the ISU has begun providing its traditional substantive and organisational support to the presumed President. In addition, the ISU has worked closely with the UN Department for Disarmament Affairs (UNDDA) and the host country, Croatia. 67. During the reporting period, contributions to the Voluntary Trust Fund for the ISU were received from Belgium, Canada, Chile, and Mexico.


68. On 26 January 2005, the GICHD concluded a Memorandum of Understanding with the Mine Action Centre of Iran on areas of co-operation such as the translation of publications into Farsi, the provision of training courses to staff members of the Mine Action Centre, study tours, etc.


69. On 31 March, the Centre consisted of 34 permanent staff members, including four persons seconded by the Governments of France, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland. In total, 14 nationalities are present at the Centre (including staff members having more than one citizenship): Switzerland (16 persons), Canada (7), UK (6), France (4), US (4), Norway (2), Australia, Chile, Colombia, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Spain, and Sweden.

Geneva, 22 April 2005

All publications of the GICHD are available on

List of Acronyms
CCW Convention on the Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects
CEMOD Cost Effectiveness Model
CMAC Cambodia Mine Action Centre
DDAS Database for Demining Accident Reporting System
DRC Democratic Republic of Congo
EMAO Ethiopian Mine Action Organisation
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
ERW Explosive Remnants of War
EUDEM European Union in Humanitarian Demining
GICHD Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining
ISU Implementation Support Unit
ITF International Trust Fund
IMAS International Mine Action Standard(s)
IMSMA Information Management System for Mine Action
MAC Mine Action Centre
MAG Mines Advisory Group
MaXML Mine action Extensible Mark-up Language
MDC Mine Dog Centre
MDD Mine Dog Detection
MINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara
MRE Mine Risk Education
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NGO Non-governmental organisation
NMAS National Mine Action Standard(s)
NPA Norwegian People’s Aid
OAS Organisation of American States
PSO Peace Support Operations
REST Remote Explosive Scent Tracing
RSC Regional Support Centre
SAC Survey Action Centre
SALW Small Arms and Light Weapons
SEEMACC South-East Europe Mine Action Co-ordination Council
SIDA Swedish International Development Agency
SOP Standing Operation Procedure(s)
SRSA Swedish Rescue Services Agency
SWEDEC Swedish EOD and Demining Centre
UK United Kingdom
UN United Nations
UNDDA United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNFICYP United Nations Forces in Cyprus
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UNMAS United Nations Mine Action Service
UNMEE United Nations Mission in Eritrea and Ethiopia
UNOPS United Nations Office for Project Services
US United States of America
UXO Unexploded Ordnance
ZAMAC Zambia Mine Action Centre