Afghanistan

Afghanistan: 2004 Berlin Conference Declaration

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We, the participants in the 2004 Berlin Conference on Afghanistan,
Committed to the vision of a secure, stable, free, prosperous and democratic Afghanistan as laid out in the Afghan Constitution and as reaffirmed in the speech of President Hamid Karzai held at this Conference, in particular welcoming the announcement to hold direct presidential and parliamentary elections in September 2004.

Noting with satisfaction the substantial progress achieved under the Bonn Agreement of December 2001 in fostering peace, stability, national unity, democratization, and economic development in Afghanistan, culminating in the adoption of a new Afghan Constitution in January 2004, which lays the groundwork for an elected Government and Parliament, and an independent Judiciary, which guarantees the constitutional rights of all its citizens - men and women - and adheres to the principle of human rights and the establishment of a self-sustaining, market-orientated economy.

Welcoming the achievements in the state and institution building process, in particular the peaceful holding of two Loya Jirgas which elected a President and adopted a Constitution, the progress in creating and strengthening the national security institutions, the adoption of key legislation, the re-establishment of a Central Bank and the successful launch of a new currency, the adoption of a National Development Framework and a National Budget, as well as the establishment of Commissions on Human Rights, Elections, Judiciary and Civil Service Reform,

Noting with satisfaction the progress made by Afghans and the international community in the fight against remnants of international terrorism, and the common resolve to defeat terrorists who undermine security and reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan,

Welcoming the contributions and pledges towards Afghanistan’s reconstruction and reform programs made by countries at the Tokyo Conference of January 2002, that have helped avert a humanitarian crisis and resettle more than three million refugees and internally displaced people so far, and laid the foundation for economic development and growth in the future,

Determined to complete the Bonn Process by creating the conditions under which the people of Afghanistan can freely determine their own political future by establishing a fully representative government through free and fair elections in a secure and peaceful environment,

Determined to continue, in the spirit of the Bonn Agreement, as a common endeavor of the Afghan people and the international community, the tasks of rebuilding and reforming the political, social and economic structures of Afghanistan, with the aim of creating lasting peace, stability and economic development, and with a view to offering all Afghans in an equitable manner tangible prospects for a brighter future,

Agree

1. that while the responsibility for providing security and enforcing law and order throughout the country resides with the Afghans themselves, the engagement of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), mandated by the UN-Security Council and now under the command of NATO, and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) - at the request and welcomed by the Afghan Government - will be continued until such time as the new Afghan security and armed forces are sufficiently constituted and operational,

2. that the international community is determined to assist further in the stabilization of the security situation throughout the country, in particular with the deployment of Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRT), which also contribute to reconstruction and development efforts,

3. that it is necessary to implement vigorously the first phase of the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration program to be completed by the end of June 2004 as decided by the President of Afghanistan, thereafter to intensify the program ahead of the 2004 elections, and to continue the formation of the Afghan National Army and the National Police,

4. that further efforts will be necessary for the full establishment of the rule of law and a functioning judicial system as enshrined in the Constitution,

5. that opium poppy cultivation, drug production and trafficking pose a serious threat to the rule of law and development in Afghanistan as well as to international security, and that therefore Afghanistan and the international community shall do everything - including the development of economic alternatives - to reduce and eventually eliminate this threat,

6. that the investment program presented in the report "Securing Afghanistan’s Future" outlines the substantial further assistance required to address Afghanistan’s long term reconstruction needs, and that the implementation of this program depends as much on the continued commitment of donors as on the Afghan Government’s success in achieving the ambitious targets it has set for itself.

7. that better predictability makes it desirable for the assistance to Afghanistan to be, if possible, in multi-year commitments and, with increasing absorption capacity for a growing share of this assistance to be channeled through the Afghan budget as direct budget support or as contributions to the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) and to the Law and Order Trust Fund (LOTFA), and that the Government of Afghanistan will continue to make every effort to enhance domestic revenue mobilzation,

8. Strongly to endorse the Workplan put forward by the Government of Afghanistan and annexed herewith, to stress the importance of the reform steps and actions outlined therein, and to note Afghanistan's determination to pursue this agenda,

9. that the international community's assistance to Afghanistan will have a particular focus on supporting the implementation of this Workplan,

10. That all efforts to build a new Afghanistan shall also reflect the aspirations of the Civil Society that is taking root in the country and promote the participation of women according to their rights under the Constitution,

Welcome

1. the multiyear commitments made at the Conference for the reconstruction and development of Afghanistan totalling US$ 8.2 bn for the fiscal years 1383 - 1385 (March 2004 - March 2007), which includes a pledge of US$ 4.4 bn for 1383 (March 2004 - March 2005),

2. the commitment by NATO to expand ISAF's mission by establishing five additional Provincial Reconstruction Teams by summer 2004 and further PRTs thereafter, as well as the readiness of ISAF and OEF to assist in securing the conduct of elections,

3. the further steps made by Afghanistan and its neighbors to foster regional cooperation under the auspices of the Kabul Declaration on Good Neighbourly Relations from December 22, 2002, in particular, the Declaration on Counter-Narcotics annexed herewith as well as the planned Conference on Regional Police Cooperation to be held in Doha on May 18 and 19,

Reaffirm on this basis that

Afghanistan and the international community shall continue to sustain a lasting partnership for the future, which will allow Afghanistan to complete the transition process begun with the Bonn Agreement, to reflect the will of its people, rebuild Afghanistan and create a secure, peaceful and stable country fully restored to its rightful place in the international community of free nations.

Afghanistan Conference in Berlin
Berlin, 31. März and 1. April 2004

ANNEX 1 - The Way Ahead

The Workplan of the Afghan Government

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate and Merciful
The Government of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan commits itself to the following

Agenda of Measures and Actions

Chapter I
Holding Free and Fair Elections in Afghanistan

The holding of a free and fair election in Afghanistan, as provided under Bonn, will make a major contribution to the country’s stability, the consolidation of peace and the accountability and democratic nature of the institutions established by the new Afghan Constitution. A fully representative government will be able to bring its authority and legitimacy to bear on the accomplishment of key tasks in the building of a functional state, the expansion of reconstruction and the strengthening of national unity.

Preparing this election is a major undertaking, in terms of the electoral process itself and, as importantly, in terms of creating political and security conditions conducive to free and fair elections. The Government of Afghanistan is keenly aware of the aspiration of the overwhelming majority of its people to carry out a genuine and meaningful electoral process, and is committed to work with all stakeholders to fulfil this aspiration. The Government of Afghanistan welcomes the support of the Governments of Pakistan and Iran to allow participation of Afghan refugees in their countries in the elections. In this context, the Government of Afghanistan is committed to the following:

Electoral Process and Political Rights

  • Before the holding of the elections, ensuring the full exercise by citizens, candidates and political parties, of their political rights under the new Afghan Constitution, including freedom of organization, freedom of expression and the principle of non-discrimination, as well as paying particular attention to the participation of women as voters and candidates.

  • Issuing instructions to civil servants and military personnel concerning their duty of political impartiality and the protection of political freedoms and taking appropriate sanctions against those who fail to fulfil their obligations.

  • Ensuring freedom of the press and equitable access by candidates and political parties to government media.

  • Requesting the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission and UNAMA to verify the full exercise of political rights throughout Afghanistan and prepare public reports on a regular basis with a view to determining that, ahead of the elections and, in particular, during the electoral campaign, conditions exist that are conducive to the holding of free and fair elections.

Security
  • By June 2004, achieving the demobilization of no less than 40% of the stated troop strength of the AMF, in a balanced way and on the basis of the decommissioning of military units, as well as the concentration of all heavy weapons under credible supervision, and thereafter, intensifying DDR ahead of the 2004 elections;

  • Requesting NATO and the coalition to deploy international military forces in support of the national police and the ANA, in numbers large enough to protect the integrity of the electoral process against terrorism, factionalism and lawlessness.

Chapter II
Institution Building and Development

The Government undertakes to implement its programs and policies as set out in the three pillars of the National Development Framework and National Budget in a transparent and effective manner.

In order to achieve measurable progress against goals in each of the sectors in the National Development Budget, annual targets will be set in each of the Consultative Groups at the start of each budget year. Over this fiscal year the Government will seek to accelerate reform in key areas as set out below.

Good Governance and Public Administration

The Government is committed to the establishment of an impartial, accountable and effective Civil Service that has the capacity to implement the policies and programs of the Government. The Government commits itself to the fight against corruption and to take sanction against high-level corruption.

Concrete steps to be taken:

  • Accelerate the reform of the ministries through the PRR (Priority Reform and Restructuring) process in order to clarify and streamline the role and functions of ministries, at all levels of government;

  • Adopt and implement a policy for retraining or other provision for those individuals no longer needed in their current positions;

  • Pass the Civil Service Law before the elections in order to guarantee the independence of the Civil Service and the transparency of its work and senior level appointments;

  • Establish an impartial, transparent and inclusive recruitment process for all positions, on the basis of skills and experience. Where individuals have not had the opportunity to acquire formal qualifications, alternative approaches to the measurement of potential - such as leadership and management skills - will be developed.

  • Implement management training programs to ensure that those men and women who have been excluded from educational opportunities because of war have access to administrative positions;

  • Develop and implement policies in partnership with donors with a view to ensuring harmonization of recruitment and pay policies between the two bureaucracies - the Afghan Civil Service and the NGO and UN agency system - through lateral entry and other programs;

  • Adopt and implement a Code of Conduct which provides for sanctions to be taken against demonstrated corruption, encourages the Press to conduct investigative reporting and provides for mechanisms for review of contractual agreements;

  • Implement the Presidential decree on separation of civilian and military functions;

  • Undertake a functional review of state institutions.

Fiscal Management

The Government undertakes to continue reforms of the fiscal management system in order to increase state revenues to meet all recurrent domestic needs as soon as possible, and to ensure even-handed, effective and transparent expenditure. The Government is committed to enhance its domestic revenue mobilization and will have yearly stretch targets prepared in consultation with the IMF and other International Financial Institutions.

Concrete steps to be taken:

  • Improve Afghanistan’s domestic revenue collection significantly through the implementation of tax and customs laws and a regular flow of customs and tax revenues to the central government;

  • Make every effort to improve the allotments and disbursements of budget expenditures to all levels of government, including the payment of civil servants directly, in full and on time, according to a transparent system;

  • Establish a single Treasury account as soon as possible.

Private Sector

Private sector-led development is the key to Afghanistan’s long-term economic development and poverty reduction. The Government will work to create an enabling environment conducive to investment for the legitimate domestic and international private sector by removing constraints to their activities.

Concrete steps to be taken:

  • Strengthen the legal and regulatory framework for regulation of the private sector through the simplification of existing regulations and implementation of appropriate laws;

  • Develop and implement a plan for the reorganization of state enterprises, including a privatization strategy where applicable;

  • Establish mechanisms to ensure the sound management and reform of property and land tenure laws and to provide adequate binding arbitration mechanisms for the private sector;

  • Develop and implement a plan for the creation of livable cities as engines for the development of the service sector.

Economic and Social Development

The Government commits itself to preparing a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, a Government-led process in partnership with international organizations and donors, which will build on the National Development Framework and "Securing Afghanistan’s Future", to prepare a medium-term strategy for poverty reduction.

This strategy will include the following dimensions:

  • An approach to asset-creation for the poor, paying particular attention to the rural population who are the majority of the Afghan population and are dependent on agricultural processes for their livelihoods;

  • The development and implementation of an affordable social policy that attends to the needs of vulnerable groups affected by war including refugees, IDPs, the disabled, orphans and single-headed households;

  • Ensuring that all girls and boys complete compulsory education (9 years) and have opportunities to continue at higher levels, with special attention paid to the inclusion of girls who have been prevented from access to education;

  • The need to put in place sound environmental management practices as key for sustainable development;

  • A comprehensive monitoring and reporting framework developed in partnership between the government and the international community.

Rule of Law and Human Rights

The Government is committed to the continued development of a system of governance based on the rule of law and the promotion and protection of the human rights of the Afghan people in order to reinforce national unity, as laid down in the Afghan Constitution. The Government is committed to strengthen the institutional and organizational mechanisms that will translate these rights into practice.

Concrete steps to be taken:

  • Extend full cooperation to the Independent Afghan Human Rights Commission (IAHRC);

  • Strengthen Afghanistan's institutional capacity to meet in an adequate and timely manner its reporting obligations under those international instruments to which Afghanistan is a party, the Afghan government will develop human rights monitoring, documenting and reporting mechanisms in partnership with the international community;

  • Establish a Supreme Court according to the Constitution with the necessary capacity to fulfill its mandate;

  • Strengthen the administrative and financial management capacity of Justice Institutions;

  • Accelerate the legislative reform process through adoption of key laws that would be compatible with the Constitution, including laws and procedures on the organization of judicial offices, criminal and civil codes and a penitentiary law;

  • Establish a national legal training center.

Gender

The Government is committed to ensure that its policies and programs promote the participation of women in all sectors of the economy and society in accordance with their rights in the Constitution.

Concrete steps to be taken:

  • Promote increased recruitment and guarantee equal opportunities to women in the Civil Service;

  • Ensure that gender is mainstreamed within all sectors, programs and policies.

Disarmament and Security

The Government recognizes that creating security on a nationwide scale remains fundamental to progress on economic growth, political normalization, reconstruction and development, and that the accelerated establishment of a professional and ethnically balanced ANA and Police Force, committed to the rule of law, is central for progress in this area.

Concrete steps to be taken:

  • Complete the implementation of the Disarmament and Demobilization process of the AMF by June 2005 and of the Reintegration activities by October 2006, as agreed between the Government and the international community;

  • Present a comprehensive national security strategy based on the governments’ Berlin Conference Security paper;

  • Complete the formation of a National Police and National Army as the only armed forces in the country in accordance with the plans agreed with UNAMA and the international community;

  • Continue the reforms of the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Defense and the National Directorate for Security (NDS) to ensure democratic accountability and national representation;

  • To continue to promote regional co-operation in all areas of mutual interest and as stated in the Kabul Declaration on Good Neighborly Relations of December 2002, with the aim to enhancing security, stability and economic relations, including in the fight against terrorism and narcotics;

  • Acceleration of progress towards the goal of a mine-free Afghanistan by 2012.

Drugs

The Government recognizes the growing threat posed by the opium poppy cultivation, drug production and drug trafficking in the country. It will seek to implement aggressively its National Drug Control strategy to ensure its goals are met.

Concrete steps to be taken:

  • Implement the Government’s National Drug Control Strategy based on the provision of alternative livelihoods, strengthening of drug control institutions, eradication and interdiction, actions against drug trafficking and reduction of demand;

  • Develop annual implementation strategies based on the Action Plans agreed at the International Counter Narcotics Conference on Afghanistan in February 2004, paying particular attention to the need to sequence actions;

  • Strengthen the capacity of the Afghan government to tackle drugs, including the Counter-Narcotics Directorate (CND) and the Counter-Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) and ensure ministerial level policy coordination and implementation across all relevant ministries;

  • Ensure counter narcotics are mainstreamed within national developement programs as part of the effort to promote alternative livelihoods, and synchronise these programs with law enforcement, interdiction, demand reduction and other drug control activities where appropriate.

ANNEX 2 - Progress Report

The Implementation of the Bonn Agreement

1. The Bonn Agreement of 5 December 2001 in a short two-to-three year timeline was to steer Afghanistan towards "national reconciliation, lasting peace, stability and respect for human rights in the country" until the goal of a "fully representative government" was achieved. This ambitious agenda has been guiding the efforts of Afghans and those of the international community over the past 26 months.

The political agenda

2. The Afghan Interim Authority, established under the chairmanship of Hamed Karzai, was officially inaugurated on 22 December, 2001 and led Afghanistan for the first six months following Bonn.

3. The Emergency Loya Jirga was held from 11-19 June 2002. The delegates - including over 220 women - elected by secret ballot the Head of the Transitional Administration, and confirmed ministers and other key figures. After decades of war, this marked the nation’s first tentative steps towards a system where political decisions are made by a representative assembly of the people of Afghanistan at large and not based on military force. The process for the selection of delegates involved mass popular participation in a political exercise unrivalled in Afghanistan’s history.

4. On 19 June the power of the Interim Authority was transferred to the Transitional Administration that will govern Afghanistan until free and fair elections are held later this year.

5. More then 1.5 million people - 28 per cent of them women - have been registered for the forthcoming elections so far. The President of Afghanistan had requested UN assistance to carry out registration and election and as a result on 26 July 2003 a Joint Electoral Management Board (JEMB) was established with the participation of the members of the Afghan Interim Electoral Commission and UN-appointed electoral experts. Its mandate, which initially covered voter registration only, was broadened on 18 February 2004 to grant it overall authority for the electoral process.

The institution-building agenda

6. The Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) was established by decree on 6 June 2002 as the product of a national consultative process between Afghan human rights activists, the Interim Administration and the United Nations. The AIHRC is becoming an important mechanism for the protection and promotion of human rights across Afghanistan, with broad reach through its eight regional offices. Under the new constitution this AIHRC serves as a permanent institution to investigate and monitor the human rights situation in Afghanistan.

7. The civil service commission was formally established by Presidential decree on 21 May 2002. Its most important achievement to date has been the passing of the ‘Priority Reform and Restructuring Decree’ in July, 2003 which provided the legal basis for the restructuring of ministries and departments within ministries.

8. The Judicial Commission mandated by Bonn was decreed in November 2002. It was empowered to facilitate a comprehensive law reform programme and to redraft legal codes which, on a range of subjects, has been completed or is underway.

9. A central bank has been established and enhanced its capacity connecting its 35 provincial branches to its headquarters in Kabul. A legal framework has been introduced through the passage of the central bank and commercial bank laws and a banking supervision department has been created.

10. The introduction of the new currency, which started on October 7, 2002, was a prerequisite for an effective monetary policy and a crucial step towards establishing financial stability and creating an environment that is conducive to restoring sustainable economic growth.

11. The constitution-making process started with the formation of a drafting committee in the autumn of 2002 and of a 35-member constitutional commission that was inaugurated on 26 April 2003. It embarked upon a large consultation exercise across Afghanistan and amongst Afghan refugees in neighbouring Iran and Pakistan with a view to ascertaining the views and recommendations of as many Afghans as possible. In the end over 150,000 people participated in these meetings. The commission’s final draft was made public on 3 November 2003.

12. Following nationwide election of delegates, the Constitutional Loya Jirga was convened on 14 December and successfully concluded after 22 days with the unanimous adoption of the new constitution. 502 delegates from all over Afghanistan participated, 344 of whom had been elected by the Emergency Loya Jirga district representatives. 103 were women, over 20 percent of the total at the Constitutional Loya Jirga. With the completion of this exercise, Afghanistan can be said to be equipped with a progressive constitutional framework, which fosters the establishment of the rule of law as well as national unity. The new constitution articulates a number of values that are not only shared among the vast majority of Afghans, but also with the international community at large.

13. On Security Sector Reform, the Interim Authority produced comprehensive papers outlining its vision of affordably sized armed forces under civilian control for two meetings of international donors held in Geneva in April and May 2002. At the latter meeting, five donor nations agreed to take responsibility for coordinating support to the security sectors: the United States of America became the lead nation for support to the Afghan National Army, Japan for Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, Germany for the police, the United Kingdom for counter-narcotics and Italy for the justice sector.

14. Following the initial reform of the Ministry of Defence on 20 September 2003, the Afghanistan's New Beginning Programme (ANBP) commenced the pilot phase for disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of military forces in selected areas that so far has been completed in Kunduz, Mazar-i-Sharif, Kabul and Gardez and will start in Kandahar and Bamyan soon. Over 5,200 soldiers have been disarmed and 3,300 reintegrated so far. Heavy weapons cantonment has begun in Kabul and some other areas.

15. On December 1, 2002 President Karzai signed a decree establishing the Afghan National Army that brought all Afghan military forces, mujahideen and other armed groups under the control of the Ministry of Defence (MoD). The reform of the MoD and general staff began in spring 2003 with the aim of creating a broad based organization staffed by professionals from a balance of ethnic groups.

16. Under US lead, the Afghan National Army has trained a Central Corps of 5,271 troops, with an additional 3,056 recruits in training at the Kabul Military Training Centre before being deployed at military establishments in Kabul and, for temporary periods, in other parts of the country.

17. Rebuilding of the Afghan National Police, including border police, as well as anti-narcotics police force, is well under way. All major police facilities in Kabul have been rebuilt and equipped, work has begun in four provinces and is under way in seven more provinces. More than 5000 commissioned and non-commissioned police officers, amongst whom an albeit still small number of women, have so far been trained at the National Police Academy, about 4000 officers and patrolmen have been given training courses in four regional training centers. Three more centers will follow with a view to training up to 20.000 patrolmen by the forthcoming elections. The Law and Order Trust Fund provides for the regular payment of salaries and non-lethal equipment to the police.

18. The Counter Narcotics Directorate was created to coordinate, monitor and evaluate the implementation of the Afghan National Drug Control Strategy that set the objective of eliminating the production, trafficking and consumption of illegal drugs in Afghanistan. A new drugs law, compliant with UN drug conventions, has been passed; a counter-narcotics police created and a special narcotics force established to conduct interdiction operations. The government has established a central planning cell to coordinate poppy eradication and a series of programmes have been put together to support rural infrastructure, alternative livelihoods and employment opportunities.

19. The National Directorate of Security is undergoing a programme of substantial reform and restructuring both in Kabul and the provinces on the basis of a new charter that restricts its previously held wide powers.

International military assistance

20. On 20 December 2001, the Security Council adopted resolution 1386 authorizing the creation of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and subsequent resolutions have continually renewed its mandate. NATO took over command and responsibility for ISAF on 11 August 2003. As anticipated in the Bonn agreement, ISAF has provided much needed stability to the country’s capital, relief from inter-factional violence and created political space unrivalled in other parts of Afghanistan, allowing a multitude of political and civil society organizations as well as media to operate in relative freedom. In particular, it made it possible for the Emergency and Constitutional Loya Jirgas in June 2003 and December 2004 respectively, to be held in a peaceful environment. In addition to this peace-keeping and confidence-building role, ISAF has contributed to the training of the new Afghan security institutions.

21. Since November 2002 the deployment of Provincial Reconstruction Teams has extended some of the anticipated "ISAF effect" to a growing number of provinces. There are now 11 PRTs nationwide, 10 under Coalition command and one ISAF PRT in Kunduz.

The reconstruction agenda

22. To assist the new Afghan government in the rehabilitation, recovery and reconstruction of Afghanistan, on 21 and 22 January, 2002 the international conference on reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan was held in Tokyo under the co-chairmanship of Japan, the United States, the European Union and Saudi Arabia with the participation of more than 61 countries and 21 international organizations. Participants pledged more than $5 billion of assistance over a six-year period.

23. Over the past two years the economic and humanitarian situation has improved: economic growth has taken place in the urban centers; food security has improved with record crop yields; a national budget was produced and presented; a new currency adopted, schools reopened across the country, education provided for 4.3 million girls and boys and a major road reconstruction programme embarked upon beginning with the Kabul to Kandahar road. The government’s primary health care package service has now reached forty per cent of the population; the National Solidarity and Employment programmes have been launched and 2.3 million refugees returned from Iran and Pakistan.

24. Progressively since the Tokyo conference, the leadership and ownership of the coordination of the reconstruction process has been steadily taken over by the Afghan authorities. A National Development Framework laid out the government’s broad development objectives. The Consultative Group mechanism evolving from this placed the government in direct dialogue with the donor community. The National Development Budget translated the broad priorities and programmes of the National Development Framework into detailed and prioritized development projects that were funded through the budget.

25. The government’s increasing leadership capacity in defining national priorities led to a huge re-costing exercise that built on Tokyo by defining the targets together with the strategy and funds needed to achieve them for the next seven years. This document entitled ‘Securing Afghanistan’s Future’ covers all sectors of intervention including the security sector that was not included in Tokyo. The document sets economic growth targets for Afghanistan that are aligned with the Millennium development goals. It also sets priorities and emphasizes the need to reestablish the rule of law and an environment for private sector driven economic development.

United Nations assistance

26. The Bonn agreement mandated the United Nations and, in the particular, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, to "monitor and assist in the implementation of all aspects" of the agreement. In order to assist the SRSG to comply with this mandate, on 28 March the UN Security Council established by its resolution 1401 the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) and formalized the assistance and support roles of the United Nations to the Interim and Transitional Administrations of Afghanistan. The twin requests to the United Nations contained in the Bonn agreement - to monitor and assist in all aspects of implementation - will therefore be relevant to the post-election stage of the Afghan peace process.

International relations

27. The Interim and Transitional Administrations through active diplomacy successfully forged relationships with Afghanistan’s neighbours and many other countries around the world. Afghanistan’s participation in the "six plus two" discussions on 11 March 2002 was a sign of renewal in the country’s regional relations, which had greatly suffered during the two decades of war. The important relationship with its neighbours was reinforced and formalized through the Kabul Declaration on Good Neighbourly Relations that was signed in Kabul on 22 December 2002. The Kabul Declaration was reinforced by the September 2003 Declaration on Encouraging Closer Trade, Transit, and Investment Cooperation. Furthermore, the establishment of a Tripartite Commission between Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the United States has increased understanding between Afghanistan and Pakistan and improved cooperation in addressing mutual security concerns.

28. The close and continuing partnership between the Afghan Interim and Transitional authorities and the international community was highlighted and reinforced, in particular, during the UN General Assemblies in both September 2002 and 2003, with ad hoc high-level meetings. In December 2002, the Afghan government and UN members states reviewed the progress of the Bonn Agreement and examined the way forward during the Petersberg II meeting at the site of Bonn Talks.

ANNEX 3 - The Berlin Declaration on Counter-Narcotics Within the Framework of the Kabul Good Neighbourly Relations Declaration

Berlin, 1 April 2004

The representatives of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan and the governments of the People’s Republic of China, Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Republic of Uzbekistan met in Berlin on 1 April to consider further practical follow-up to the Kabul Declaration on Good Neighbourly Relations agreed in Kabul on 22 December 2002, in the area of Counter-Narcotics.

The representatives reaffirmed their countries` commitment to constructive and supportive bilateral relations with Afghanistan based on the principles of territorial integrity, mutual respect, friendly relations, co-operation and non - interference in each other’s affairs.

In accordance with these principles, the representatives agreed on the need to strengthen their collaboration in the fight against the illegal cultivation, production and trafficking of opium and other related substances.

The representatives expressed their support for the concept of creating a security belt around Afghanistan with the purpose of organising an effective system to interdict trafficking of opium products. In this regard they will strengthen their co-operation within the framework of the Global Anti-Narcotics Partnership.

The representatives recognised that a stable Afghanistan with a strong central Government is essential to counter-narcotics efforts and that they therefore reaffirm their support for the government of Afghanistan, and fulfillment of their obligations under the Kabul Declaration on Good Neighbourly Relations of December 2002.

The representatives agreed that the cultivation and supply of opium seriously undermines normal economic and social development; that it fosters poverty, lawlessness and political instability. They therefore asserted their collective commitment to working with the ultimate goal of the elimination of opium cultivation and supply in this region and noted the substantial benefits that this would bring to the stability and prosperity of the region.

The representatives noted the various initiatives and activities already underway to meet these goals. They congratulated the Government of Afghanistan on its strong commitment to eliminating the cultivation of opium and encouraged it to continue to take effective measures under its National Drug Control Strategy to tackle the problem and pledged their full support for these measures.

The Representatives emphasized the principle of "International Solidarity and Burden Sharing" and called on International Donors to provide the maximum possible financial and technical assistances to Afghanistan.

The representatives resolved that their governments will take the necessary measures:

  • To ensure that their border territories are secure and that, to this end, they devote the necessary resources to their respective border guard forces;

  • To ensure they interdict the maximum possible quantities of opiates as they leave Afghanistan; and that their interdiction capacity should undermine the capacity of traffickers to export opiate;

  • To facilitate the closest possible communication and collaboration between their respective counter-narcotics forces, including the exchange of information and intelligence;

  • To explore fully the scope for carrying out co-ordinated operations on their respective sides of border areas, where there is clear advantage in their doing so;

  • To pursue comprehensive national drugs strategies that include active programs of measures in respect to: the expansion of law enforcement capacity; the development of appropriate legal and institutional frameworks, including legislation on money-laundering and corruption, and the reduction of demand for opiates among their domestic population;

  • Noting that programmes and initiatives vary between different countries, to share knowledge and best practice on all aspects of counter-narcotics, including: the elimination of crops; the interdiction of supply and disruption of supply chains; the development of alternative livelihoods for opium poppy farmers; and the reduction of local demand;

  • To ensure, as far as possible, that the development of alternative livelihoods is tailored to actual demand in the local and regional economy; and to explore fully the scope for promoting the trade of alternative goods and services (agricultural and non-agricultural) in regional and international markets.

  • To co-operate closely in international fora on counter-narcotics, notably the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. To work with the countries affected by opium originating from Afghanistan: to ensure maximum possible co-ordination of the respective programmes they pursue in collaboration with international actors; and to undermine the risk of shifts in one country or region creating windows of opportunity for drugs trafficking in another.

The representatives agreed that their officials would take work forward in these areas and hold a follow-up meeting at expert / official level by June 2004 in Kabul under the auspices of the Afghan Government. They agreed that their governments should meet to review progress within one year of signature of this declaration.

The representatives noted the determination of their governments to identify further areas of regional co-operation and agreed that a further meeting on environmental issues would be held in the summer of 2004.

Signed:

Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
People's Republic of China
Islamic Republic of Iran
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Republic of Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Republic of Uzbekistan