The escalation of violence in December 2013 has significantly worsened an already fragile human rights situation. Conflict between the supporters of President Salva Kiir and those of former deputy president Riek Machar has increased business risks of association with severe human rights violations. Combatants on both sides have committed serious violations, including massacres of civilians and mass rape.
Weak commitment to the peace process and poor control over military forces undermine the prospects of an improving human rights situation. This is particularly the case in Unity, Jonglei and Upper Nile states where fighting is concentrated. Meanwhile, labour standards remain exceptionally poor throughout the country, predominantly due to extremely weak enforcement in practice. Conflict will further erode state capacity and undermine livelihoods, increasing risks of complicity in labour rights violations.