Libya

Consultancy for: Research on the determinants of destination choices of refugees and migrants in Libya

Organization
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Closing date

INTRODUCTION

The MMC is a leading source for independent and high-quality data, research, analysis and expertise on mixed migration. The MMC aims to increase understanding of mixed migration, to positively impact global and regional migration policies, to inform evidence-based protection responses for people on the move and to stimulate forward thinking in public and policy debates on mixed migration. The MMC’s overarching focus is on human rights and protection for all people on the move. The MMC focuses on 7 core regions, with regional teams in each of these: Eastern Africa & Yemen; North Africa; West Africa; the Middle East, Asia, Europe and Latin America & Caribbean Read more about the MMC here: www.mixedmigration.org. The MMC is part of the Danish Refugee Council (DRC), a leading humanitarian organization responding to displacement and mixed migration in 40 countries.

Since 2014, MMC has been implementing the Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism initiative (4Mi), a growing network of monitors stationed in key migration hubs in more than 20 countries along major migration routes, who are interviewing refugees and migrants on the move on a continuous basis, providing a solid evidence base on the needs and protection incidents facing people on the move. Read more about 4Mi here: http://www.mixedmigration.org/4mi/.

BACKGROUND

Libya is an important destination and transit point for people on the move. Each year tens of thousands of people arrive in Libya, in the hope of finding a safer or better future. Since 2011, Libya has emerged as a key departure point on the journey to Europe. Between 2014 and 2017, 90% of arrivals in Europe along the Central Mediterranean Route had departed from Libya, making the country a well-known point of transit.[1] However, Libya is not only a country of transit, it is also a country of destination for many seeking employment in Libya’s lucrative oil economy. 4Mi data suggest that 20 percent of all surveyed refugees and migrants see Libya as their final destination, while 50 percent named Europe as their intended destination.

Although much has been discussed on the numbers of refugees and migrants arriving in Europe, little is known about their migration decision-making and patterns and which profiles of refugees and migrants are more likely to cite Europe as their intended destination. 4Mi data as well as UNHCR suggest that East Africans are more likely to migrate to Europe due to their increased probability of receiving asylum in Europe (and Libya not being a signatory to the Refugee Convention).

PURPOSE OF THE CONSULTANCY

The Mixed Migration Centre in North Africa is seeking a highly qualified consultant to conduct research on the determinants of destination choices of refugee and migrants in Libya. Under the direct supervision of the MMC Regional Coordinator the purpose of the consultancy is to produce a research report exploring what makes people on the move more likely to migrate onwards to Europe rather than to remain in Libya using 4Mi data analysis as well as secondary sources. The 4Mi data set includes information on the demographic profiles of interviewed refugees and migrants (gender, age, nationality etc.), as well as mixed migration drivers, intended destinations, experienced protection incidents, to name a few. A more detailed exploration of the 4Mi methodology can be found here.

The objective of the report is to analyze 4Mi data to determine the likelihood of specific profiles citing Europe vs Libya as an intended destination as well as the relationship of other factors such as the drivers of mixed migration or exposure to protection risks to destination choice. The consultant is welcome to propose a modified research angle or topic of interest in discussion with the MMC team.

The consultant is expected to use advanced statistical analysis and to draw on secondary literature to answer the research question.

OUTCOMES

MMC Strategic Objective:

To contribute to a better, more nuanced and balanced understanding of mixed migration (knowledge)

Outcome of Study:

To contribute to a better, more nuanced and balanced understanding of mixed migration (knowledge)

Improved understanding of migration decision-making and patterns and which profiles of refugees and migrants are more likely to cite Europe as their intended destination.

MMC Strategic Objective:

To contribute to evidence-based advocacy and better-informed European and national migration policies and debates (policy)

Outcome of Study:

Input into advocacy activities of humanitarian and development actors, including the Libya INGOF, on the experiences of refugees and migrants aspiring to reach Europe. The findings of this study will help reinforce existing evidence on mixed migration and profiles within the region while challenging assumptions that 1) all refugees and migrants are intending to move to Europe and 2) that people arriving are solely driven by economic motivations.

MMC Strategic Objective:

To contribute to effective evidence-based protection responses for people on the move (practice)

Outcome of Study:

Input into awareness-raising activities / information campaigns of DRC in origin countries and countries along the route. The findings of this research will help programs to identify which groups are likely to aspire to make the perilous journey to Libya and/or to Europe via the Mediterranean. Combined with other MMC research on protection incidents, this study can provide a greater evidence base to the design of such activities and campaigns.

DELIVERABLES

Phase: A: Data Management

Description:

The consultant is expected to clean the provided 4Mi dataset and make it readily available for quantitative analysis (preferably in STATA). This, not exclusively, includes creating dummy variables for all relevant categories and labelling all variables. The raw data will be provided by MMC in .xls format.

The deliverables for phase A are:

  1. Cleaned dataset (in .dta or .csv)

  2. Related .do file (or equivalent if other software is used)

  3. A log file reporting the changes done, descriptive statistics and a table with labelled variables.

This phase will be considered completed upon approval of all deliverables by the MMC Regional Coordinator.

Days: 5

PHASE B: Literature review and methodology

Discription:

The consultant is expected to draft a literature review section based on available research on migration determinants and destination intentions. MMC will provide an initial list of recommended readings. The review should answer the following questions:

  • How are destination intentions formed?

  • What factors shape the choice of Libya as an intended destination?

  • What factors shape the choice of Europe as an intended destination?

Based on the above, the literature review should formulate clear hypotheses concerning

  • What are the expected factors that make migrants and refugees more or less likely to remain in Libya or migrate onwards to Europe?

A methodology section should also be drafted based on the particularities of 4Mi data and the proposed hypotheses. The analytical design should also take into consideration approaches used by scholars to measure destination intentions. At this stage it is expected that the research report will adopt a sequential mixed-methods design. Hypotheses may first be tested via logit/probit regression and qualitative data available within 4Mi dataset shall be used to further corroborate and, to the possible extent, explain the findings. Alternative methods can be suggested.

The deliverables for phase B are:

1. Outline of the research report

  1. Introduction and literature review section (2,500-3,000 words)

  2. Methodology section (1,000 – 1,500 words)

This phase will be considered completed upon approval of all deliverables by the MMC Regional Coordinator.

DAYS: 5

PHASE C: Data analysis and report drafting

Disdcription:

Based on formulated hypotheses the consultant will undertake required analysis to test them. The main results will be described in the main section of the report. These should be corroborated and explained drawing on both qualitative data in the 4Mi dataset and secondary research.

The deliverables for phase C are:

1. Full draft of the research report (8,000 – 12,000 words).

Tentatively, the outline of the report will include a two-page executive summary, introduction, review of the available literature, a description of the research contribution, the methods and related limitations, main findings and conclusions.

The research report should be written in English, using accessible and plain language. In drafting the report, the consultant will adhere to the MMC editorial guidelines (attached herein)

During this phase, a first full draft of the report will be reviewed and edited by the MMC Regional Coordinator and sent back to the consultant for integration. An updated draft will be sent for further review and editing to MMC Geneva and returned to the consultant for integration. This phase will be considered completed upon approval of both the MMC Regional Coordinator and MMC Geneva.

DAYS: 6

TOTAL DAYS : 16

**

TIMELINE AND PAYMENT

The duration of the assignment is estimated to 16 working days, payable as per below schedule:

Deliverable Date Payment

**

Contract signed 12/10/2020

Phase A 19/10/2020 25%

Phase B 30/10/2020

Phase C 14/11/2020 75%

This is a home-based consultancy and no travel is foreseen. There are no other entitlements or benefit attached to this contract.

RESEARCHER QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE

Essential:

· Advanced degree (Master or PhD) in migration studies or social sciences with expertise in quantitative research methods.

· Excellent quantitative research skills, including mastering of statistical software such as STATA.

· Proven experience in research on migration, or similar relevant topics.

· A proven knowledge and understanding (e.g. through prior publications) of mixed migration dynamics in North Africa.

· Excellent analytical and reporting skills.

· Excellent command of spoken and written English.

Desirable:

· Previous experience with 4Mi methodology and data

· Previous experience with MMC or DRC

GENERAL

Commitments: DRC has a Humanitarian Accountability Framework, outlining its global accountability commitments. All staff are required to contribute to the achievement of this framework (http://www.drc.dk/HAF.4265.0.html)

ASSESSMENT AND AWARD OF CONSULTANCY

MMC/DRC will evaluate the proposals and award the assignment based on technical (80%) and financial (20%) feasibility.

MMC/DRC reserves the right to accept or reject any proposal received without giving reasons and is not bound to accept the lowest or the highest bidder.

Only those shortlisted will be contacted for an interview with the panel to ensure their understanding of the consultancy services.

SELECTION CRITERIA

For the award of this project, MMC/DRC has established evaluation criteria which govern the selection of offers received. Evaluation is made on a technical and financial basis. The percentage assigned to each component is determined in advance as follows:

THE TECHNICAL OFFER (80% of the overall evaluation): will be evaluated using the following criteria, and points will be allocated in the scale from 1– 10 for each of the criteria stipulated below, whereas the weighting is as follows:

  • 33% - Cover Letter which highlights the capacity and experience to conduct this quantitative research

  • 33% - CV including references of previous relevant publications (max 4 pages) and example of written work

  • 34% - Proposed workplan of activities

THE FINANCIAL OFFER (20% of the overall evaluation):

The total cost of the financial offer should be mentioned in the DRC Bid Form (Annex A) in USD, while the breakdown of the budget should be attached separately.

[1] UNHCR Libya, https://www.unhcr.org/en-us/libya.html

How to apply

APPLICATION PROCESS

Interested applicants who meet the required experience and qualifications are invited to download the tender annexes from the following link:

https://drcngo.sharepoint.com/:f:/s/PublicDocumentsNA/EhKou7ettYVIqUyKrL...

And submit the following documents to: tender.ro06@drc.ngo no later than Wednesday, September 30, 2020, 23:30 (GMT +1) and specify the subject: Consultancy for: Research on the determinants of destination choices of refugees and migrants in Libya

  • Cover Letter, highlighting the capacity and experience to independently conduct secondary literature review and quantitative research analysis with statistical software on mixed migration data

  • CV including references of previous relevant publications (max. 4 pages)

  • Example of written work

  • Proposed workplan of activities and deliverables

  • Annex A Financial proposal providing total cost of service fees in USD (Must be on the DRC RFQ Tender file)

  • Break down of the budget, which shall cover all costs over the course of the consultancy

  • Annex B (DRC general conditions of contract) in attached documents acknowledged and signed.

  • Annex C (supplier code of conduct) in attached documents acknowledged and signed.

  • Annex D (Supplier registration form) completed and signed.