Many ideas are emerging about how growing African cities can cut their risks. Among them: organise slum dwellers to improve the infrastructure or simply sort out which risks are the key ones, experts say.
Attacks by Christian militias in CAR's border town of Bangassou have driven about 2,750 people into Bas-Uele, raising the risk that the Ebola outbreak could spread across the border, a WHO representative said.
Because of the growing Islamist threat in central Mali, humanitarians fear spiraling violence will drive teachers and doctors out, leaving aid agencies to run basic services, as is the case in the north.
Normally droughts lead to the early marriage of girls, as pastoralists look for dowry payments to help offset livestock losses. But this time they are selling drought-threatened livestock and using the money to keep girls in school.