MSF is calling for the emergency evacuation of all vulnerable people, especially children, living in unsafe and unsanitary conditions, to safe accommodation on the Greek mainland and within the European Union.
Thousands of migrants and asylum seekers in northern Greece have been subject to appalling reception and detention conditions, with at-risk groups lacking necessary protection, Human Rights Watch said.
Due to increased restrictions on transit via the official Balkan route, smuggling continues to pose protection risks to increasing numbers of migrants seeking alternative ways to reach the destination countries.
Of the 660,000 refugees and migrants who have reached Greece this year more than half have landed at Lesvos. With winter approaching, reception conditions and capacity remain overstretched and inadequate.
Countries along the transit routes need urgent support to ensure women and girls have access to life-saving sexual and reproductive health care and are protected from violence, the United Nations Population Fund said.