Bangladesh: Floods and Landslides - Jun 2017
Deadly mudslides triggered by torrential monsoon rains in southeastern Bangladesh are estimated to have claimed at least 135 lives. This disaster occurred just two weeks after Cyclone Mora killed 9 people and caused significant damage across the region. In addition to mudslides, the rains caused severe flooding in low-lying areas, causing significant damage to road and communication infrastructure. Remote communities in Bandarban, Chittagong and Rangamati districts have been cut off and remain without water, electricity, and food supplies. Communities of Rohingya refugees in Bandarban district may also have been affected. Further mudslides are feared due to continued rainfall.
The total estimated death toll currently stands at 98 from Rangamati district, 30 from Chittagong district and 7 from Bandarban district. Many others are injured and in need of medical assistance. (UN RC, 14 Jun 2017)
Renewed mudslides in south-eastern Bangladesh have claimed additional lives and further damage to homes and infrastructure. Collapsing hillsides and heavy flooding are now estimated to have killed over 150 people across five districts. (UN RC, 15 Jun 2017)
As of 16 June, floods and landslides in the Chittagong Hill Tract region and surrounding areas have killed 156 people. According to UNICEF, 30 to 40 per cent of water points in the affected areas are flooded.(OCHA, 19 Jun 2017)
The June landslides, which started on 13 June with a few episodes, resulted in heavy loss of life (160 persons), injury (187 persons), and destruction of houses (6,000 structures) and other key infrastructures despite being localized in impact. It is the worst landslide-related disaster since 2007. It affected about 80,000 persons across five districts: Bandarban, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Khagrachari and, Rangamati. Among these people, 34, 000 were severely impacted as they lost their houses together with their belongings, basic necessities, livelihoods and food stocks.Approximately 46% of the most affected persons are from Rangamati, 25% from Bandarban, 25% from Chittagong, 2% from Cox’s Bazar and, 1% from Khagrachari. (HCTT Response Plan, 12 Jul 2017)
Monsoon rains have triggered flooding across 11 districts in northeastern Bangladesh, affecting at least 1.3 million people as of 16 July. NGO partners report that vast areas of Moulvibazar and Sylhet remain under water affecting agricultural livelihoods. The Government has released cash grants and distributed food to the affected districts. (OCHA, 17 Jul 2017)
On 22 and 23 July, new landslides affected the district of Bandarban in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, with preliminary reports indicating that 6 people have died and 4 people are still missing. Currently, 1,500 people in eight shelter camps are still receiving emergency shelter assistance and food assistance from national authorities. Complementing the government’s efforts, several humanitarian partners are providing shelter assistance, psychosocial support, NFIs and cash for food to 4,300 households. Other agencies are providing shelter, WASH and Sexual and Reproductive Health assistance to 1,500 households. (OCHA, 24 Jul 2017)
As of the end of July 2017, national authorities are sheltering roughly 1,500 persons, who receive three cooked meals per day. National authorities are also supporting landslide victims (the families of dead or injured people) through the provision of cash and food packages...According to the government, some 39,164 persons remain severely affected in Bandarban and Rangamati districts. (UN RC Bangladesh, 31 Jul 2017)
Flooding has affected the eastern, southern and northern regions of Bangladesh. As of 14 August, 12 deaths have been confirmed, including six children. An estimated 586,000 people in 356 unions of 20 upazilas have been affected. The Government has opened 973 emergency flood shelters, hosting an estimated 68,500 people. The waters of 23 rivers have risen beyond the danger line and further heavy rain and an increased risk of landslides is forecast for coming days. The Government has allocated 31 million BDT and 10,630 MT of rice to flood-affected districts. (OCHA, 15 Aug 2017)
As of 20 August, 5.7 million people in 27 districts have been affected by floods with 300,000 people in emergency shelters, and 98 people known to have died. Access to affected areas is restricted with roads and bridges damaged. The Government allocated US$820,000 as well as rice and dry food parcels, and 1,945 local medical teams have deployed to prevent outbreaks of disease. (OCHA, 21 Aug 2017)
As of 27 August, the Government of Bangladesh reports that the floods have affected 32 districts in the northern, north eastern and central parts of the country due to the overflowing of the Brahmaputra-Jamuna river, affecting a total of more than 8 million people. The Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief (MoDMR) informs that 335 shelters in flood-affected areas are sheltering more than 106,000 people. (UN RC Bangladesh, 28 Aug 2017)
On 1 September 2017, the HCTT launched an Emergency Response Plan to complement the timely and effective response by the Government of Bangladesh. The plan is seeking US$12 million to provide immediate humanitarian assistance to 330,000 people (45 per cent men, 55 per cent women, 51 per cent children) (66,000 HH) for the next 6 months (August 2017 – January 2018), primarily in the six most affected districts: Gaibhandha, Dinajpur, Kurigram, Amalpur, Nilphamari and Sirajganj. (UN RC Bangladesh, 4 Sep 2017)
As of 18 September, floodwaters had begun to recede in 30 of the 32 affected districts, according to the MoDMR. An estimated total of 103,855 houses are reported to have been destroyed and 633,792 have been partially damaged; 145 persons are known to have lost their lives due to the floods. According to an assessment conducted by the Shelter Cluster on 6-9 September 2017, vulnerable, marginalized and poorer communities were the worst affected by the floods, especially communities building with mud-houses or living on chars and embankments. While many are recovering, there remain specific groups that still have urgent needs for emergency shelter support. (UN RC Bangladesh, 18 Sep 2017)
As of 28 September, widespread flooding has killed 145 people, affected 8 million people across 32 districts, destroyed 103,855 houses, and damaged 4,636 education infrastructure. According to the needs analysis report issued on 20 September, the priority concerns of flood-affected communities are food security, livelihood and shelter. In the flood-affected areas, most of the crop lands has been submerged for at least 5-7 days causing damage to crops, houses, infrastructures. Most of the houses are made of mud and straw and they have been fully damaged. Many people are still living in makeshifts shelters, in relatives’ home or under the open sky. (UN RC Bangladesh, 28 Sep 2017)
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A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Message from the WFP Representative
2017 marked another year of progress for Bangladesh. The country met the Least Developed Country (LDC) graduation requirements for the first time, meaning that LDC graduation could be formalized as soon as 2021. Bangladesh moved up in the Human Development Index rankings (to 142). GDP growth for 2017 was an impressive 7.3 percent. The Government of Bangladesh has shown strong commitment to development and has the results to show for it, as a member of lower middle-income countries since 2016, according to the World Bank.
Description of the disaster
Since 12 August 2017, heavy monsoon rains above the seasonal average severely impacted the riverine region of India,
Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. This resulted in intense flooding in almost two-thirds of Bangladesh, affecting over 8 million people. Bangladesh experienced floods for the fourth time in 2017 and the latest flood had inundated the country.
As of 12 September, the Government of Bangladesh reported that the floodwaters had receded in 28 of the 322 floodaffected districts.
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The Start Fund fills a critical gap in humanitarian financing. It pools funding from donors for immediate release for underfunded small to medium scale crises, spikes in chronic humanitarian crises, and to act in anticipation of impending crises.
The Chittagong Hill Tracts area in southeastern Bangladesh is prone to natural disasters. The resulting displacement of local tribal people has spurred many conflicts in the past. On 13 June 2017, heavy rains triggered the deadliest landslide in the area to date, killing at least 160 and injuring hundreds more.
Population Movement: Six Months On
FOOD SECURITY SNAPSHOT
Favourable prospects for 2018 boro rice output
Paddy production in 2017 estimated marginally below-average
Cereal imports in 2017/18 marketing year forecast to remain high
Prices of rice and wheat higher year-on-year
Favourable production prospects for 2018 boro rice
International prices of wheat and maize were generally firmer in January, supported by weather-related concerns and a weaker US dollar. Export price quotations of rice also strengthened mainly buoyed by renewed Asian demand.
In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, rose sharply for the third consecutive month in January and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.
By Sajid Hasan and Raqibul Alam, IFRC
Beauty Khatun, 35, was living a peaceful life with her farmer husband and three children in one of the most remote areas of Bhandarbari, Bangladesh, when a flood changed everything. One night, while Beauty and her family were fast asleep, the Jamuna River, located several hundred meters from her home overflowed and swept through their entire village. Triggered by seasonal rains, the monsoon flood which struck parts of Bangladesh in August 2017 submerged 32 districts in the country and affected more than eight million people.
ACT members ICCO Cooperation and Kerk in Actie (KiA) provided emergency food and seeds so that islanders could replant their food crops and restart their lives
• The WFP Level 3 Emergency Response for the refugee crisis in Bangladesh-Myanmar has been extended until 21 March 2018.
• An estimated 655,500 refugees have arrived in Bangladesh since violence broke out in Myanmar’s northern Rakhine State on 25 August 2017.
• WFP is providing food assistance to the influx through the provision of a general food basket to families and SuperCereal to pregnant and nursing women and children under 5 years.
In 2017, South Asia was impacted by large-scale natural and human-caused disasters.
Highlights of the operations update:
• As of 15 January 2018, Bangladesh Red Crescent Society reached 13,329 families with multipurpose cash grant (CHF 50 per family) and eight types of vegetable seeds. Corrugated iron sheets and shelter toolkits were distributed to around 1,900 families.
• Multipurpose cash grant and blankets distribution are still continuous, and will be completed by the end of February.
When monsoon rains swept Bangladesh last autumn, flooding forced people from their homes in droves. With some scientists estimating that shifting weather patterns could cost the country almost a quarter of its existing landmass, climate migration is fast becoming alarmingly commonplace
All photographs by the Environmental Justice Federation
by John Vidal
ICIMOD has prepared flood inundation maps in view of the floods and landslides that this year’s monsoon has triggered in Bangladesh. The maps have been prepared using Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2/ Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS-2/PALSAR) and Sentinel-1 satellite images made available by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the European Space Agency (ESA).