Myanmar: Floods and Landslides - Jul 2015
Heavy rains caused floods and landslides in several parts of Myanmar since June 2015. On 30 July, Cyclone Komen made landfall in Bangladesh, bringing strong winds and additional heavy rains to the country, which resulted in widespread flooding across 12 of the country’s 14 states and regions (Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Kachin, Kayin, Magway, Mandalay, Mon, Rakhine, Sagaing, Shan, Yangon). On 31 July, the President declared Chin and Rakhine states, and Magway and Sagaing regions as natural disaster zones.
According to the National Natural Disaster Management Committee (NNDMC), 125 people were killed and some 1.7 million people were temporarily displaced by floods and landslides. Almost all of the displaced people had returned to their villages of origin by the end of September, leaving only about 10,000 people in evacuation centres (mainly in Sagaing Region and Chin State) awaiting relocation. The Government has said it expects most of these remaining displaced people to return to their villages of origin or to be relocated by the end of October, although a portion of these people may be in temporary accommodation for longer, particularly in the case of people who are going to be permanently relocated to new sites.
The NNDMC identified Hakha in Chin State, Kale in Sagaing Region, Pwintbyu in Magway Region, and Minbya and Mrauk-U in Rakhine as the five most affected townships where a total of 229,600 people were affected by the floods. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, over 1.1 million acres of farmlands have been inundated, with more than 872,000 acres destroyed, as of 4 October. So far, 495,000 acres have since been re-cultivated. Damage to crops and arable land will disrupt the planting season and pose a risk to long-term food security.
While the water has receded in most areas, many roads and bridges were destroyed in the worst affected states and regions. The roads in Chin State were particularly badly affected and continue to pose a major logistical challenge for assessments and assistance delivery.
Multi-sectoral Initial Rapid Assessments (MIRA) were conducted in 317 locations of 34 townships in Ayeyarwady, Bago, Chin, Magway, Rakhine and Sagaing, covering close to 200,000 people. Other needs assessments were also carried out in areas not covered by the MIRA assessments in Chin and Rakhine states. According to the Rakhine State Government (RSG), Buthidaung, Kyauktaw, Minbya, Maungdaw and Mrauk-U townships were the most severely affected areas in Rakhine State. In many parts of Rahine State, floods and salt water severely damaged the paddy fields. A major concern remains water contamination, as most villages use water ponds for drinking water and many ponds were flooded and contaminated.(OCHA, 4 Nov 2015)
Six months on from the devastating floods that struck Myanmar, around 400,000 people have received emergency assistance and support in their recovery from the Myanmar Red Cross Society and its partners in the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. At their peak the floods affected over 9 million people across 12 of Myanmar’s 14 states and regions. The floods temporarily displaced over 1.7 million people and destroyed 15,000 homes as well as more than 840,000 acres of agricultural crops.
Between July 2015 and January 2016, over 1,400 Red Cross volunteers and staff from the Myanmar Red Cross Society and Red Cross partners assisted flood affected people across the country. The first phase included evacuations, providing emergency relief such as purified water, food, household items, and shelter materials. Since then, efforts have been focused on supporting the longer term recovery of flood affected communities across the five worst hit regions of Chin, Rakhine, Sagaing, Magway and Ayerwady with livelihood activities, cleaning of contaminated ponds and wells and infrastructure rehabilitation. (ICRC, IFRC, Myanmar Red Cross Society, 29 Jan 2016)
Maps & Infographics
H.E. Mr. Tateshi HIGUCHI, Ambassador of Japan to Myanmar, and Chairpersons of the various construction committees from the States and Regions concerned signed the grant contracts for four projects today. Under these contracts, Japan’s Grant Assistance for Grassroots Human Security Projects (GGP) Scheme will provide a total of US$532,304 as follows:
The Project for Construction of Kone Ma Hat Village Bridge in Bamaw Township, Kachin State (USD 121,957)
H.E. Mr. Tateshi HIGUCHI, Ambassador of Japan to Myanmar, and Chairpersons of the School Construction Committees from Magway Region signed the grant contracts for four projects today. Under these contracts, Japan’s Grant Assistance for Grassroots Human Security Projects (GGP) Scheme will provide a total of US$ 430,371 as follows:
The Project for Construction of Thanse Village Basic Education Branch Middle School in Sidoktaya Township, Magway Region (USD 89,663)
H.E. Mr. Tateshi HIGUCHI, Ambassador of Japan to Myanmar, and Chairpersons of the School Construction Committees from Sagaing Region and Shan State concerned signed the grant contracts for five projects today. Under these contracts, Japan’s Grant Assistance for Grassroots Human Security Projects (GGP) Scheme will provide a total of US$499,391 as follows:
The Project for Construction of No.2 Basic Education Primary School in Ka Nan Village in Tamu Township, Sagaing Region (US$ 101,855);
By Mariana Palavra
Rakhine State in western Myanmar has seen years of ethnic tensions, causing death, displacement and loss of livelihoods. UNICEF and the NGO Community and Family Services International (CFSI) are working together to make sure that children and adolescents are shielded from the effects of inter-communal conflict, discrimination and poverty.
2015 was a very significant year for Myanmar, marked by two historic milestones: the signing of the Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) in October which brought the country one step closer to ending one of the world’s longest running civil wars; and democratic elections of the national and local parliaments in November resulting in a landslide win by the National League for Democracy (NLD), led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Both events have reinforced the country’s democratic transition which began a few years ago.
Myanmar/Burma has experienced internal conflicts for more than six decades, involving fighting between ethnic groups and the army in different locations throughout the country.
Inter-communal violence in Rakhine State has resulted in the displacement of over 140 000 people since 2012 and a de facto segregation between communities. Efforts to resettle displaced people are currently ongoing.
Prospects for global cereal production in 2016 continued to improve in recent months with significant upward revisions for maize and wheat, reflecting particularly favourable weather conditions in some of the large producing countries.
COUNTRIES IN NEED OF EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE: FAO estimates that 36 countries, including 28 in Africa, are in need of external assistance for food. Persisting conflicts and drought induced production declines are the main causes that have stressed food security in 2016.
Like so many communities in rural Myanmar, the 114 families in Tha Koar village depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. The village is in central Rakhine state, one of the six states or regions worst affected by the floods that swept through Myanmar between July and October 2015.
Emergency response to floods: Since early August, 474,490 people in 10 regions/ states across Myanmar were affected by torrential floods. In cooperation with the government counterparts and partners, WFP launched emergency flood response with rapid needs assessments and subsequent food distributions in the worst affected areas of Ayeyarwaddy, Bago, Mandalay and Magway Regions as well as Rakhine State. The assessment results indicated that 189,000 people were in need of immediate food assistance.
CHANGES IN CONTEXT
CHANGES IN CONTEXT
UNICEF and partners have reached over 51,000 displaced and conflict-affected persons, including approximately 20,400 children with safe and sustainable sanitation facilities in Rakhine and Kachin camps and surrounding communities and are empowering displaced persons to manage their own water and sanitation facilities.
UNICEF’s focused advocacy on the release of child soldiers has seen 46 children released from armed groups since January 2016.
WASHINGTON, July 14, 2016 — Communities hit hard by the floods and landslides that devastated areas of Myanmar in 2015 will receive assistance for resilient road reconstruction, livelihoods support, and recovery of the agriculture sector as part of the Flood and Landslide Emergency Recovery Project (FLERP). The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors approved US$200 million of financing for the project today.
KAYAH State, which experienced deadly landslides in November last year, was provided with a disaster preparedness and response fund by a philanthropic organisation Wednesday.
The establishment of the K100 million-fund in Kayah State came after the KBZ’s Brighter Future Myanmar foundation’s establishment of such a fund in Rakhine and Chin states as well as in Sagaing and Magwe regions recently.
This update provides an overview of the progress made during nine months of the operation with focus on the latest three months considering that operations update no. 3 was an account of the first six month of operations.
Change to food assistance: Since early 2016, distinct changes in type and level of WFP’s relief assistance have ushered in Kachin IDP camps. Firstly, cash-based transfer was introduced in order to enable IDPs to diversify their food choices. In this regard, 27,600 IDPs have transitioned to cash based transfers. Based on a recent market assessment, WFP intends to employ combined cash and food (rice only) transfer modality for the remaining 8,000 IDPs currently receiving regular food baskets.
In May, WFP assisted more than 256,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Kachin, northern Shan and Rakhine States.
Temporary displacements have been generated by security threats, elevated tension and sporadic armed clashes in Kachin and Shan States. Although initial observation suggests immediate public donations have been sufficient, displaced families may face crop loss if they miss the harvest season.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS