Haiti: Earthquakes - Jan 2010
The earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 Jan 2010 affected almost 3.5 million people, including the entire population of 2.8 million people living in the capital, Port-au- Prince. The Government of Haiti estimates that the earthquake killed 222,570 and injured another 300,572 people. Displacement peaked at close to 2.3 million people, including 302,000 children. At least 188,383 houses were badly damaged and 105,000 were destroyed by the earthquake. Sixty per cent of Government and administrative buildings, 80 per cent of schools in Port-au-Prince and 60 per cent of schools in the South and West Departments were destroyed or damaged. Total earthquake-related loss is estimated at $7.8 billion, equivalent to more than 120 per cent of Haiti’s 2009 gross domestic product. (UN General Assembly, 2 Sep 2011)
According to the Humanitarian Action Plan for Haiti 2014 an estimated 172,000 people remained internally displaced in Haiti in 306 camps at the end of 2013, almost four years after the earthquake. Basic services in camps, including WASH and health, had declined faster than the pace of return or relocation of the displaced. 16,377 displaced families living in 52 camps were considered at high risk of forced evictions. Almost 80,000 people lived in 67 camps considered to be at particularly high risk of flooding, with an additional 30 camps at additional environmental risks.
By mid-2014, an estimated 104,000 people remained internally displaced in 172 camps. Almost 70,000 IDPs were not currently targeted by any return or relocation programs. (OCHA, 31 Jul 2014) By Sep, 85,432 people remained internally displaced in 123 camps. (IOM, 8 Oct 2014)
The World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) and their partners, the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), UN-Habitat, and Habitat for Humanity International, joined forces in 2013 to analyze what was learned from the 2010 Haiti earthquake shelter response and housing recovery experience. This report is the outcome of that process.
All children deserve safe, accessible and culturally appropriate school buildings — regardless of class, creed, gender or ability. When children live in hazard-prone places where high winds, earthquakes, floods and other hazards threaten them, they need schools and grounds that protect them.
Yet recent disasters around the world attest to the fragility of many schools.
1.1 HISTORY OF OPEN CITIES AND THE OPEN DATA FOR RESILIENCE INITIATIVE
The World Bank, through its Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), launched the Open Cities Project in November 2012 to create open data ecosystems that will facilitate innovative, data-driven urban planning and disaster risk management in South Asian cities. Open Cities is one component of a broader World Bank and GFDRR program, the Open Data for Resilience Initiative (OpenDRI), further described in box 1.1.
The World Bank’s Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the European Union (EU) are working on a guide for developing disaster recovery frameworks (DRF). This guide aims to help governments and partners plan for resilient post disaster recovery while contributing to longer term sustainable development. It is based on practices gleaned from country experiences in disaster recovery around the world.
This report was prepared by World Bank and GFDRR staff, with financial support from the Japan Policy and Human Resources Development (PHRD) and guidance from the Government of Japan.The report was written to support discussion at the Sendai Dialogue – a special event on Disaster Risk Management – co-organized by the Government of Japan and the World Bank as part of the Program of the WB/IMF Annual Meetings 2012. The report will also inform the Development Committee at the Annual Meetings 2012.
I. Overview: Recovery Framework
This DRM Country Note updates the April 2009 version. The Note was prepared following consultations with members of the World Bank’s Haiti DRM Country team and the task team leaders overseeing projects in Haiti. The programmatic DRM approach proposed within this document has been presented to the World Bank’s development partners. Following discussion with the Government of Haiti, a workshop was organized in mid September 2010 to further discuss the strategic vision of the National Disaster Risk Management System and the subsequent program to support the realization of this vision.
The devastating Haiti Earthquake of January 2010 created major challenges on a variety of fronts.
World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) are working with ImageCat and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) to produce high precision aerial imagery of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and the surrounding areas following the 12 January 2010 M7.0 earthquake. This data was initially used to support relief efforts and is now being used to support damage analysis.