Haiti: Earthquakes - Jan 2010
The earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 Jan 2010 affected almost 3.5 million people, including the entire population of 2.8 million people living in the capital, Port-au- Prince. The Government of Haiti estimates that the earthquake killed 222,570 and injured another 300,572 people. Displacement peaked at close to 2.3 million people, including 302,000 children. At least 188,383 houses were badly damaged and 105,000 were destroyed by the earthquake. Sixty per cent of Government and administrative buildings, 80 per cent of schools in Port-au-Prince and 60 per cent of schools in the South and West Departments were destroyed or damaged. Total earthquake-related loss is estimated at $7.8 billion, equivalent to more than 120 per cent of Haiti’s 2009 gross domestic product. (UN General Assembly, 2 Sep 2011)
According to the Humanitarian Action Plan for Haiti 2014 an estimated 172,000 people remained internally displaced in Haiti in 306 camps at the end of 2013, almost four years after the earthquake. Basic services in camps, including WASH and health, had declined faster than the pace of return or relocation of the displaced. 16,377 displaced families living in 52 camps were considered at high risk of forced evictions. Almost 80,000 people lived in 67 camps considered to be at particularly high risk of flooding, with an additional 30 camps at additional environmental risks.
By mid-2014, an estimated 104,000 people remained internally displaced in 172 camps. Almost 70,000 IDPs were not currently targeted by any return or relocation programs. (OCHA, 31 Jul 2014) By Sep, 85,432 people remained internally displaced in 123 camps. (IOM, 8 Oct 2014)
I - A brief history P.2
II - Aid architecture after the earthquake P.3
III - Project management according to donors' procedures P.4
IV - Public investments into development P.5
V - Perspectives P.6
I - Historique: P.2
II - Architecture de l’aide au développement suite au séisme: P.3
III - Des projet gérés par les donateurs: P.4
IV - Investissements dans le développement: P.5
V - Perspectives: P.6
Déjà avant la catastrophe du 12 janvier 2010, on estimait qu’il manquait 300 000 logements à Port-au-Prince et un plan national de logement était cruellement nécessaire. Suite au tremblement de terre, avec des dom-mages dans le secteur estimés à environ 2,3 milliards de $ US, le reloge-ment des personnes affectées a posé un défi énorme et, deux ans après, est encore loin d’être achevé. En l’absence d’un programme commun, les nombreux organismes actifs dans le secteur ont proposé des solutions à coût et qualité divers.
Even before the 2010 earthquake it was estimated that there was a lack of 300 000 homes in Port-au-Prince and a national housing plan was desper-ately needed. Following the earthquake, with overall damage in the sector estimated at US$ 2.3 billion, resettlement of the affected populations pre-sented an enormous challenge and, two years later, it is still far from be-ing achieved. In the absence of a joint program, the large number of or-ganizations active in the sector have proposed solutions with a variety of costs and quality.
Having relied on foreign aid for decades, Haiti has been faced with a significant increase of foreign organizations since the January 12th, 2010 disaster. Considering that, in the absence of strong governmen-tal leadership, too many actors may counteract aid effectiveness, the Action Plan for National Recovery and Development of Haiti (PARDN; Government of Haiti, March 2010) stresses the importance of effective coordination mechanisms.