Haiti: Earthquakes - Jan 2010
The earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 Jan 2010 affected almost 3.5 million people, including the entire population of 2.8 million people living in the capital, Port-au- Prince. The Government of Haiti estimates that the earthquake killed 222,570 and injured another 300,572 people. Displacement peaked at close to 2.3 million people, including 302,000 children. At least 188,383 houses were badly damaged and 105,000 were destroyed by the earthquake. Sixty per cent of Government and administrative buildings, 80 per cent of schools in Port-au-Prince and 60 per cent of schools in the South and West Departments were destroyed or damaged. Total earthquake-related loss is estimated at $7.8 billion, equivalent to more than 120 per cent of Haiti’s 2009 gross domestic product. (UN General Assembly, 2 Sep 2011)
According to the Humanitarian Action Plan for Haiti 2014 an estimated 172,000 people remained internally displaced in Haiti in 306 camps at the end of 2013, almost four years after the earthquake. Basic services in camps, including WASH and health, had declined faster than the pace of return or relocation of the displaced. 16,377 displaced families living in 52 camps were considered at high risk of forced evictions. Almost 80,000 people lived in 67 camps considered to be at particularly high risk of flooding, with an additional 30 camps at additional environmental risks.
By mid-2014, an estimated 104,000 people remained internally displaced in 172 camps. Almost 70,000 IDPs were not currently targeted by any return or relocation programs. (OCHA, 31 Jul 2014) By Sep, 85,432 people remained internally displaced in 123 camps. (IOM, 8 Oct 2014)
This report carries out a rigorous literature review around four key areas:
Is education seen as a ‘high priority’ amongst emergency affected populations?
To what extent is schooling disrupted by different types of emergencies? And how are different groups affected?
What are the economic and human costs of emergencies on education? And what are returns to investment in education in emergencies?
What is the nature of funding for education in emergencies?
The report finds that:
Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, more than two million people moved to temporary camps, most of which arose spontaneously in the days after the earthquake. This study focuses on the material assistance people in five Port-au-Prince camps reported receiving, noting the differences between assistance from formal aid agencies and from ‘informal’ sources such as family.
There is a growing recognition of the critical role information management can play in shaping effective humanitarian response, coordination and decision-making. Quality information, reaching more humanitarian actors, will result in better coordination and better decision-making, thus improving the response to beneficiaries as well as accountability to donors. The humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake marked a watershed moment for humanitarian information management.
Emerging aid donors, such as China, India and, increasingly, Brazil, are changing the international aid architecture and challenging some of its tenets, such as the current consensus on 'aid effectiveness'.
This special issue of Disasters explores the increased interest and engagement by donor and national governments in 'stabilising' contexts affected by armed conflict and complex emergencies, and considers its implications for international humanitarian action.
Tuesday, January 19, 2010 11:36 AM by Ben Ramalingam - ALNAP
In a recent interview, the US government's two top envoys for the Haiti disaster response, former Presidents Clinton and Bush, urged that international aid efforts be accompanied by both patience and realistic expectations. This call - drawing on their respective experiences of the Indian Ocean Tsunami response, and more controversially, Hurricane Katrina - is a sensible one.
International aid is not about making miracles happen.
Monday, January 18, 2010 4:58 PM by Alison Evans
Ban Ki-moon is asking for patience as aid agencies grapple with the sheer enormity of the worst catastrophe in recent years. And journalists are asking why aid is not getting through on the scale needed, in a country where the very foundations of aid delivery have been shattered.
The fact is that Haiti has been a humanitarian crisis for ten years, and enforced dependence on the outside world is partly to blame. While the outside world struggles to get help into Haiti, the country itself has no internal resources to fill the gap.