Haiti: Earthquakes - Jan 2010
The earthquake that hit Haiti on 12 Jan 2010 affected almost 3.5 million people, including the entire population of 2.8 million people living in the capital, Port-au- Prince. The Government of Haiti estimates that the earthquake killed 222,570 and injured another 300,572 people. Displacement peaked at close to 2.3 million people, including 302,000 children. At least 188,383 houses were badly damaged and 105,000 were destroyed by the earthquake. Sixty per cent of Government and administrative buildings, 80 per cent of schools in Port-au-Prince and 60 per cent of schools in the South and West Departments were destroyed or damaged. Total earthquake-related loss is estimated at $7.8 billion, equivalent to more than 120 per cent of Haiti’s 2009 gross domestic product. (UN General Assembly, 2 Sep 2011)
According to the Humanitarian Action Plan for Haiti 2014 an estimated 172,000 people remained internally displaced in Haiti in 306 camps at the end of 2013, almost four years after the earthquake. Basic services in camps, including WASH and health, had declined faster than the pace of return or relocation of the displaced. 16,377 displaced families living in 52 camps were considered at high risk of forced evictions. Almost 80,000 people lived in 67 camps considered to be at particularly high risk of flooding, with an additional 30 camps at additional environmental risks.
By mid-2014, an estimated 104,000 people remained internally displaced in 172 camps. Almost 70,000 IDPs were not currently targeted by any return or relocation programs. (OCHA, 31 Jul 2014) By Sep, 85,432 people remained internally displaced in 123 camps. (IOM, 8 Oct 2014)
The materials contained in this supplementary document complement those found in the existing IRP Guidance Note on Recovery – Health. The discussions and case studies contained herein portray an expanded and oftentimes fresh perspective on many of the issues found in the original guidance note on several new and emerging issues for which there exist best practices and lessons learned.
The Guidance Note on Recovery: Private Sector draws from the wider body of knowledge on private sector recovery and from documented experiences of past and present disaster planning and recovery e orts. Materials have been collected through desk review and direct consultations with relevant experts. These experiences and lessons learned are classi ed into the following four major issues:
The Disaster Recovery Role of the Private Sector
Engaging the Private Sector in Disaster Recovery
Disasters, climate change impacts and conflicts affect millions of people every year. They destroy livelihoods and cause huge and often irreversible damage to the economic, social and cultural fabric of communities and nations. The severity of disaster impact is closely associated with inequality, conflict, environmental degradation, badly planned and managed urban development and weak governance. It is often the poor who are forced to stay in marginalised, unstable and disaster prone areas.
Effective post-disaster reconstruction programmes
This topic guide is a review of the state of play in post-disaster reconstruction. It builds on extensive research, literature and experience to date, most recently considering outputs from the 2015 Sendai Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). It considers the status quo and puts forward alternative positions for facilitating effective reconstruction through a more seamless and re-planned approach.
The conclusions of this publication are the following (p. 57):
Suite au séisme du 12 Janvier 2010 qui a dévasté Port au Prince, occasionnant plus de 200 000 morts et des dégâts matériels considérables, les évaluations effectuées par les acteurs de la reconstruction de l’aménagement urbain, de la réduction des risques, et de la préparation aux désastres, ont mis en évidence la nécessité pour l’État Haïtien de mettre en place une Méthodologie Nationale qui servirait de Standard pour la prise en compte de la réduction des risques dans l’aménagement urbain.
Persons with disabilities often experience discrimination and exclusion, despite the adoption of an increasingly rights-based approach to humanitarian assistance. The past three decades have witnessed a growing awareness of disability issues and the emergence and spread of disabled people’s organisations.
The growing awareness must be accompanied by practical measures to identify and reduce the barriers faced by persons with disabilities in an emergency situation.
All children deserve safe, accessible and culturally appropriate school buildings — regardless of class, creed, gender or ability. When children live in hazard-prone places where high winds, earthquakes, floods and other hazards threaten them, they need schools and grounds that protect them.
Yet recent disasters around the world attest to the fragility of many schools.
The transitional shelter approach adds to other successful response approaches, such as core housing and semi-permanent housing, to broaden the range of options for governments and humanitarian stakeholders to support populations affected by disasters and conflicts.
1.1 HISTORY OF OPEN CITIES AND THE OPEN DATA FOR RESILIENCE INITIATIVE
The World Bank, through its Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), launched the Open Cities Project in November 2012 to create open data ecosystems that will facilitate innovative, data-driven urban planning and disaster risk management in South Asian cities. Open Cities is one component of a broader World Bank and GFDRR program, the Open Data for Resilience Initiative (OpenDRI), further described in box 1.1.
The public is using Twitter for real-time information exchange and for expressing emotional support during a variety of crises, such as wildfires, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, political protests, mass shootings, and communicable-disease tracking.31 By encouraging proactive standardization of hashtags, emergency responders may be able to reduce a big-data challenge and better leverage crowdsourced information for operational planning and response.
On January 12, 2010, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck Haiti and devastated the capital Port-au-Prince, and its peripheral municipalities (Delmas, Cité Soleil, Croix des Bouquets, Pétionville, Tabarre, Carrefour), the Ouest department and the cities of Léogâne, Grand Goâve, Petit Goâve, Ganthier, Gressier, as well as the Sud-Est department and, in particular, the city of Jacmel. The earthquake killed more than 220,000 people and displaced more than 1.5 million people.
Le 12 janvier 2010, un tremblement de terre d’une magnitude de 7,0 sur l’échelle de Richter a frappé Haïti, dévastant la capitale Port-au- Prince, et les municipalités de sa périphérie, Delmas, Cité Soleil, Croix des Bouquets, Pétionville, Tabarre, Carrefour, les départements de l’Ouest et les villes de Léogâne, Grand Goâve, Petit Goâve, Ganthier, Gressier, le département du Sud-Est et plus particulièrement la ville de Jacmel.
The handbook is focused on the reconstruction phase, in particular on permanent housing, not on transitional shelter. It also incorporates risk-reduction measures within reconstruction methodology in order to prepare for any future disaster. The handbook concentrates primarily on the transfer of emergency shelter to more permanent housing solutions following a disaster. It gives specific direction in how to overcome the complexity and challenges of reconstruction by ensuring that safe and sustainable approaches are taken within urban areas.
I. Overview: Recovery Framework
Les procédures opérationnelles standardisées pour une réponse coordonnée aux expulsions forcées établissent un processus clair ainsi que des rôles et responsabilités pour les acteurs concernés. Ces directives opérationnelles sur la gestion de la question complexe des expulsions forcées des camps des personnes déplacées internes suite au séisme du 12 janvier 2011 ont été développées par les membres du Groupe de travail Logement-Foncier-Propriété (« HLP Working Group ») en Haïti, coordonné par ONU-Habitat avec le soutien du Haut-Commissariat aux droits de l’homme.
In December 2010, 26 experts from the international humanitarian community met in Cuba to discuss the use of field hospitals and foreign medical teams during emergency situations. The topics that were of most concern to participants were how to ensure that field hospitals or medical teams meet required standards and how to coordinate them so that they support national efforts. These minimum standards for foreign medical teams in case of disasters are a product of the discussions that took place.