Niger: Hepatitis E Outbreak - Apr 2017

Status
Past disaster
Glide
EP-2017-000042-NER

Disaster description

The Ministry of Health on 19 April declared an outbreak of Hepatitis E that has killed 25 among 86 infected people. Medical assistance and preventive measures are ongoing to curb the disease which is mostly transmitted through contaminated water. (OCHA, 24 Apr 2017)

The current outbreak in Niger is closely linked to an unclean water supply and hygiene and sanitation facilities for the 240,000 people who are currently displaced in Diffa. This is a particularly vulnerable population that for years has been suffering the consequences of the conflict between Boko Haram and armies in the region....To contain the outbreak, MSF has been working with the Ministry of Health for several weeks...Additionally, MSF has significantly increased its water and sanitation activities in Kitchendi, Garin Wazan and Toumour villages, where around 135,000 people have settled—the vast majority of which are displaced. The organization also distributed water chlorination tablets, soap and new jerrycans for 16,800 families in these villages. So far, more than 27,900 gallons of water have been treated and jerrycans being used in the community have been cleaned to prevent the spread of the disease. (MSF, 26 Apr 2017)

There is a risk that the outbreak will intensify. New cases are expected to continue to emerge in new health districts in the region. Diffa region is prone to rapid propagation of the disease due to the prevalent underlying factors, such as limited access to safe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices. The region is inhabited by vulnerable populations, such as refugees, IDPs, and returnees who are at risk of contracting the disease due to their living conditions. The forthcoming rainy season, from June to September, is likely to increase the spread of the disease to neighbouring regions, and will further exacerbate WASH needs among affected populations. (ACAPS, 4 May 2017)

As of mid-August, the hepatitis E outbreak in Niger is gradually improving, with a sustained decrease in the number of new cases observed since the second peak was attained in week 26, during which 150 cases were reported. During week 32 (week ending 13 August 2017), 37 new suspected cases were reported, compared with 48 in week 31. (WHO, 25 Aug 2017)

The trend of hepatitis E cases in Niger has continued to decrease steadily after the last peak in week 26 (week ending 30 June 2017), with the incidence falling below 40 cases per week. During week 39 (week ending 1 October 2017), a total of 39 new cases and zero deaths were reported, compared to 45 cases reported in week 38. All the new cases originated from Diffa District. Since the beginning of the outbreak on 2 January 2017, a total of 1,955 suspected and confirmed cases including 38 deaths (case fatality rate 1.9%) have been reported, as of 2 October 2017. The cases have been reported from five districts, including Diffa (1,216 cases, 7 deaths), Nguigmi (305 cases, 2 deaths), Bosso (244 cases, 2 deaths), Mainé Soroa (11 cases), and Goudoumaria (9 cases). Diffa and Bosso have been the most affected districts, accounting for over 90% of the total cases. The last death occurred on 7 July 2017. (WHO, 6 Oct 2017)

New cases of Hepataitis E are still being presented and recorded in the region of Diffa. Since the declaration of the epidemic by the Health authorities on the 19 April 2017, a total of 2,035 cases have been declared with 38 deaths recorded. Up to 25 April the mortality rate was 29 per cent dropping to 1.86 per cent by 24 October. (OCHA, 24 Oct 2017)

As of 29 December, thee outbreak continues to improve. The majority of cases have been reported from Diffa, N’Guigmi, and Bosso health districts. Case incidence continues to decline, 11 suspected cases have been reported in week 46. No cases have been reported since week 46 of 2017. (WHO, 29 Dec 2017)

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