Niger: Hepatitis E Outbreak - Apr 2017
The Ministry of Health on 19 April declared an outbreak of Hepatitis E that has killed 25 among 86 infected people. Medical assistance and preventive measures are ongoing to curb the disease which is mostly transmitted through contaminated water. (OCHA, 24 Apr 2017)
The current outbreak in Niger is closely linked to an unclean water supply and hygiene and sanitation facilities for the 240,000 people who are currently displaced in Diffa. This is a particularly vulnerable population that for years has been suffering the consequences of the conflict between Boko Haram and armies in the region....To contain the outbreak, MSF has been working with the Ministry of Health for several weeks...Additionally, MSF has significantly increased its water and sanitation activities in Kitchendi, Garin Wazan and Toumour villages, where around 135,000 people have settled—the vast majority of which are displaced. The organization also distributed water chlorination tablets, soap and new jerrycans for 16,800 families in these villages. So far, more than 27,900 gallons of water have been treated and jerrycans being used in the community have been cleaned to prevent the spread of the disease. (MSF, 26 Apr 2017)
There is a risk that the outbreak will intensify. New cases are expected to continue to emerge in new health districts in the region. Diffa region is prone to rapid propagation of the disease due to the prevalent underlying factors, such as limited access to safe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene practices. The region is inhabited by vulnerable populations, such as refugees, IDPs, and returnees who are at risk of contracting the disease due to their living conditions. The forthcoming rainy season, from June to September, is likely to increase the spread of the disease to neighbouring regions, and will further exacerbate WASH needs among affected populations. (ACAPS, 4 May 2017)
As of mid-August, the hepatitis E outbreak in Niger is gradually improving, with a sustained decrease in the number of new cases observed since the second peak was attained in week 26, during which 150 cases were reported. During week 32 (week ending 13 August 2017), 37 new suspected cases were reported, compared with 48 in week 31. (WHO, 25 Aug 2017)
The trend of hepatitis E cases in Niger has continued to decrease steadily after the last peak in week 26 (week ending 30 June 2017), with the incidence falling below 40 cases per week. During week 39 (week ending 1 October 2017), a total of 39 new cases and zero deaths were reported, compared to 45 cases reported in week 38. All the new cases originated from Diffa District. Since the beginning of the outbreak on 2 January 2017, a total of 1,955 suspected and confirmed cases including 38 deaths (case fatality rate 1.9%) have been reported, as of 2 October 2017. The cases have been reported from five districts, including Diffa (1,216 cases, 7 deaths), Nguigmi (305 cases, 2 deaths), Bosso (244 cases, 2 deaths), Mainé Soroa (11 cases), and Goudoumaria (9 cases). Diffa and Bosso have been the most affected districts, accounting for over 90% of the total cases. The last death occurred on 7 July 2017. (WHO, 6 Oct 2017)
New cases of Hepataitis E are still being presented and recorded in the region of Diffa. Since the declaration of the epidemic by the Health authorities on the 19 April 2017, a total of 2,035 cases have been declared with 38 deaths recorded. Up to 25 April the mortality rate was 29 per cent dropping to 1.86 per cent by 24 October. (OCHA, 24 Oct 2017)
As of 29 December, thee outbreak continues to improve. The majority of cases have been reported from Diffa, N’Guigmi, and Bosso health districts. Case incidence continues to decline, 11 suspected cases have been reported in week 46. No cases have been reported since week 46 of 2017. (WHO, 29 Dec 2017)
Maps & Infographics
MESSAGE DE LA REPRESENTANTE
Chers Collègues et Partenaires,
2017 a été une année éprouvante pour les enfants au Niger. Les situations d'urgence humanitaire qui persistent, la croissance démographique rapide, le changement climatique et les inégalités sociales pérennes sont de perpétuelles menaces pour leur survie, leur développement et leur bien-être.
THE REP’S NOTE
2017 was a challenging year for children in Niger. Their survival, development and well-being continued to be threatened by acute and persistent humanitarian emergencies, rapid population growth, climate change, and long-standing social inequalities.
- New displacements on the rise as conflict persists
- Several new attacks in Nigeria and Cameroon
- First joint mission in 2018 conducted in Bosso
- Modalities agreed to ease return of Nigerian refugees in Cameroon
- Food insecurity remains high, expected to persist in 2019
CONFLICT AND DISPLACEMENT
Niger struggles with cyclic and protracted events that devastate the lives of millions of people. Conflict, adverse climate, poverty and underdevelopment cause huge population displacements, drive up hunger and malnutrition, and deprive communities of basic services and opportunities for a better future. This year, 2.3 million people need humanitarian assistance to survive – an increase of 400,000 people compared to 2017. Humanitarian needs have deepened in nearly all the sectors and all of Niger’s eight regions are grappling with humanitarian emergencies at varying scales.
A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Hepatitis E virus is probably the leading cause of viral hepatitis in the world. The global burden of Morbidity Study (WHO, 2010) estimated that at least 20.1 million people are infected globally by the virus genotypes 1 and 2 every year, out of which only 3.4 million people reported the disease, resulting in 70,000 deaths and 3,000 new-borns baby deaths.
▪ Food insecurity to remain high in the lean season ▪ 278 Nigerian asylum seekers forced back from Cameroon ▪ Aid operations resume in Rann in north-east Nigeria ▪ Military operations underway around Lake Chad ▪ More than a thousand children abducted since 2013
▪ UNICEF supported the Ministry of Humanitarian Action and Disaster Relief for the NFI assistance to 500 displaced households in Blabrine and IRC for 5 households in Assaga, bringing UNICEF overall NFI support in 2017 in the Diffa region to 3,584 families with IRC and 1,000 with the Ministry of Humanitarian Action and Disaster Relief.
In 2018, an estimated 2.3 million people, including 1.2 million children, will be affected by one or more of the crises impacting the Niger, including food insecurity, malnutrition, population displacement, disease outbreaks and natural disasters.3 In the Diffa Region, an estimated 419,000 people will suffer the humanitarian consequences of the three-year conflict and resulting population displacement,4 and more than 87,000 people located in the two regions bordering Mali may become internally displaced if the security situation continues to deteriorate.5 More than 227,015 people who have …
Direct attacks by Boko Haram resulted in violence against local communities (village chiefs, civilians, including young boys and girls reported to have been attacked or abducted).
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 54 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key ongoing events, including:
- Chikungunya in Kenya
- Cholera in Malawi
- Cholera in Zambia
- Suspected Rift Valley fever in South Sudan
- Humanitarian crisis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 53 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 52 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
- Humanitarian crisis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Cholera in Zambia
- Listeriosis in South Africa
For each of these events, a brief description followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.
POPULATION TOTALE 21M
DANS LE BESOIN 2,3M
PERSONNES CIBLÉES 1,8M
BUDGET (US$) 338M
PARTENAIRES HUMANITAIRES 175
PRÉFACE PAR LA COORDONNATRICE HUMANITAIRE
Le document que vous tenez entre les mains est le fruit ultime de beaucoup d’efforts et de réflexions communs qui ont conduit à l’adoption d’une stratégie d’interventions et d’objectifs globaux spécifiques en vue d’une réponse adéquate aux besoins humanitaires du Niger en 2018.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 51 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
- Declaration of the control of cholera outbreak in Borno State, Nigeria
- Hepatitis E in Namibia
- Humanitarian crisis in Central African Republic
Cholera in South Sudan
Le nombre de personnes dans le besoin est passé de 1,9 million en 2017 à 2,3 millions en 2018.
Près de 6 000 personnes dans la région de Diffa passent en phase de crise, selon les résultats du cadre harmonisé d’analyse de la vulnérabilité alimentaire.
Une moyenne hebdomadaire de 6 000 migrants sortants enregistrée en 2016 contre une moyenne mensuelle de 5 500 migrants sortants en 2017.
Près d’une trentaine d’écoles toujours fermées dans la région de Diffa où l’insécurité reste une menace
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 49 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
Influenza A H1N1 pdm09 in Ghana Listeriosis in South Africa
Plague in Madagascar
Cholera in Zambia
Cholera in Tanzania
Humanitarian crisis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Attacks by Boko Haram continued in the Diffa region on several villages. 11 people including 4 women and 4 children were arrested by Defense and security forces under suspicion of association with the violent extremist group.
UNICEF continued the planned NFI assistance to victims of floods, in support to the government, for 680 households of 22 villages of Maradi region. UNICEF overall NFI response to floods reached 5,330 households (36,152 people).