Ethiopia: Acute Watery Diarrhoea (AWD) Outbreak - May 2016Ongoing
AWD outbreak is still ongoing in 10 woredas in six zones of Oromia and Somali regions. By week 20, a total of 1,884 AWD cases and 19 deaths had been reported. During the same week, a new area, Dolo Bay woreda in Somali region was affected. (WHO, 27 May 2016)
Since the Federal Ministry of Health confirmed the first two AWD cases on 9 June, the number of confirmed cases are increasing. The Ethiopian Public Health Institute reported about 2,145 (nationally) and 25 (in Addis Ababa) suspected AWD cases as of 12 June 2016. The Addis Ababa Health Bureau and partners launched an AWD response plan to curb the spread of the outbreak. OCHA, 20 Jun 2016
In week 15 (week ending 16 April 2017), a total of 2,388 suspected cases of AWD/cholera were reported in Afar, Amhara and Somali regions of the country. While some decline has been observed in the trend in the last weeks [4,200 cases in week 14; 4,104 cases in week 13; 4,358 cases in week 12], it is still premature to deduce overall improvement in the situation on the ground, especially with the weak surveillance system. Somali region remains the most affected, accounting for 99% of the new cases reported in the reporting week. On 20 April 2017, WHO elevated the outbreak of AWD/cholera and the humanitarian crisis in Ethiopia to grade 3 emergency. This new grading enables the organization to leverage its global capacity and scale up the response to the outbreak and the humanitarian crisis. (WHO, 21 Apr 2017)
There was a decrease in the number of AWD cases reported in week 24 (week ending 18 June 2017): a total of 661 cases were reported from the three regions compared to 1,080 cases reported in week 23 (week ending 11 June 2017). Since the beginning of 2017, a total of 37,459 cases including 784 deaths (case fatality rate 2.1%) have been reported from six regions of Somali, Oromia, Amhara, Afar, SNNP and Tigray. Eighty-nine percent of the reported cases and 96% of the deaths were reported in Somali Region alone. (WHO, 23 Jun 2017)
The AWD outbreak situation continues to improve. During week 27 (week ending 9 July 2017), 275 new AWD cases were reported from the three regions of Somali (149), Oromia (68) and Amhara (58). Since the beginning of 2017, 38,715 cases including 797 deaths (case fatality rate 2.1%) have been reported from the seven regions of Somali, Oromia, Amhara, Afar, SNNP, Tigray, and Benshangul Gumuz. Eighty-eight percent of the cases and 94% of the deaths were reported in Somali Region alone. (WHO, 17 Jul 2017)
A 27 per cent increase in the number of [AWD] cases was reported nationwide last week, mainly due to spikes in new cases reported in Amhara and Tigray regions and a resurgence of the outbreak in Afar region where community transmission of the disease is widespread. Currently, the major risk factors for the spread of the outbreak are holy water sites where large numbers of Christian pilgrims congregate from around the country, especially in Amhara and Tigray, and seasonal mobility of daily laborers to commercial farms. The high risk for further spread of the AWD outbreak continues due to the degradation of health determinants on the back drop of overburdened local health systems, including inadequate access to safe drinking water and internal and cross-border movements. (OCHA, 03 Sep 2017)
[AWD] cases continue to be reported from Afar, Amhara, Tigray and Oromia regions mainly from religious sites and commercial farms that have poor sanitation facilities and limited access to clean water. Somali region also continues to report AWD cases although at a reduced rate. With the ongoing rains, increased numbers of AWD cases are expected in the coming weeks; particularly in Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Oromia and SNNP regions. (UNICEF, 20 Sep 2017)
The outbreak is showing a downward trend. Only 61 new cases have been reported this week from 4 regions, and the majority of new cases are from Amhara and Somali regions. As of now, 9 regions in Ethiopia have been affected, and 73.6% of the total cases are from Somali region. (WHO, 09 Dec 2017)
Only 11 new cases have been reported this week from 4 regions: Amhara, Somali, Diri Dawa and B.Gumuz regions. Nine regions in Ethiopia have been affected, and 73.6% of the total cases are from Somali region. (WHO, 05 Jan 2018)
Between January and December 2017, a cumulative total of 48 814 cases and 880 deaths (CFR 1.8%), have been reported from 9 regions. In 2018 only, a total of 98 cases have been reported from two regions, Somali and Dire Dawa regions. (WHO, 02 Mar 2018)
In most parts of the country, the situation has stabilized, however, Afar region is experiencing an increase in cases which began since week 18. In week 23, 233 cases were reported, all of which are from Afar region. From week 1 to 23 2018, a total of 728 cases with 18 deaths (CFR-2.5%) has been reported from the following regions: Somali (136 cases), Afar (537 cases with 18 deaths), Tigray (38 cases), and Dire Dawa City Administration (17 cases). (WHO, 29 Jun 2018)
A total of 1407 cases of [AWD] have been reported since June 2018 in Tigray region, affecting some 34 woredas. Currently the number woredas reporting AWD cases is reduced to 16 and 80 per cent of the cases are from four woredas. Central zone and Mekelle have the majority of cases but now it is shifting to Western zone. This week there were 64 patients of which 43 per cent are from Western zone, 35 per cent in Mekelle. Risk factors are mainly due to untreated water consumption which accounts to 70 per cent of the total factors. Government and partners are distributing water treatment chemicals and health supplies, but needs surpass resources being availed. High operational cost for response, low involvement of sectors and low level of response by most partners are among the critical challenges to AWD response in the region. Meanwhile trend of AWD cases is decreasing in all Woredas of Afar region. However, the regional AWD command post identified that provision of safe drinking water remains a major gap in all affected woredas. .(OCHA, 19 Sep 2018)
Maps & Infographics
Most read reports
- UNICEF Ethiopia Humanitarian Situation Report #8 – Reporting Period: August 2018
- Ethiopia Humanitarian Bulletin Issue 63 | 3 - 16 September 2018
- WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 36: 8 - 14 September 2018 (Data as reported by 17:00; 14 September 2018)
- ACAPS Briefing Note - Ethiopia: Somali, Oromia and Tigray Displacement, 31 August 2018
- WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 36: 1 - 7 September 2018 (Data as reported by 17:00; 7 September 2018)
As cholera epidemic persists in Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian Red Cross Society (ERCS), in collaboration with UNICEF, launched an awareness creation campaign. The Campaign is bringing a real impact on the lives of residents of Addis Ababa such as Behriya Ahmed’s family. Her sister is one of the victims of the epidemic. Like many other people, Behriya and her sister used to give less attention to hygiene and sanitation.
Internal displacement due to flooding caused by heavy kiremt rainfall and resource-based inter-communal conflicts in some areas increases ES/NFI needs.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) response crucial to contain acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) outbreak.
Operators prioritize dispatch of food to woredas for the next round or month.
USAID supports an OCHA supported country-based pooled fund for the first time.
In this issue
· In 2016, UNICEF has reached more than 1.1 million people with access to clean water through the rehabilitation and drilling of water schemes, provision of water purification materials and through water trucking in the drought affected regions of Afar, Amhara, Oromia, SNNP, Somali and Tigray.
- Improved food security in some areas allowed for a reduction in nutrition hotspot classification
- El Niño-induced flooding and inter-clan conflict has contributed to the rise of internally displaced people (IDP) in Ethiopia, leaving over ten thousand internally displaced households need emergency shelter and NFIs
Ethiopia is responding to an El Niño-caused drought emergency
The El Niño global climatic event wreaked havoc on Ethiopia’s 2015 spring and summer rains driving food insecurity, malnutrition and water shortages in …
The rapidly growing number of AWD cases in Addis Ababa calls for a more coordinated endeavour before the intensity of the rains increase in August, as the peaks of AWD always occurs with flooding.
Dispatching and distribution of emergency food and ES/NFIs continues
Relief households still have inadequate consumption although inadequate consumption decreased due to enhanced assistance and improved milk and vegetable availability due to the rains: Food Survey
Agencies launch revised appeal for South Sudan refugees amid concerns the numbers could pass the 1 million mark this year
Nairobi, 15 July 2016 (UNHCR) - The population of South Sudanese refugees in the region could pass the 1 million mark this year if cross-border displacement trends continue, according to Ann Encontre, Regional Refugee Coordinator for the South Sudan situation.
ESCALATING HUMANITARIAN NEEDS
The HRD is funded at US$1 billion, but a significant gap remains, including in the critical food sector.
The drought disproportionately affects women – particularly pregnant and breastfeeding mothers - who suffer most from health complications and malnutrition.
Government calls for joint action to curb to spread of the AWD outbreak
The humanitarian impact of the 2015-2016 El Niño is deeply alarming, affecting over 60 million people globally. The El Niño phenomenon is now in a neutral phase, but food insecurity caused by drought is not likely to peak before December. East and Southern Africa are the most affected regions, and humanitarian impacts will last well into 2017.
Acute watery diarrhea cases confirmed in Addis Ababa
USAID DART visits health and nutrition programs in Somali Region
GoE, relief actors initiate logistics improvements
Suspected yellow fever cases turned out negative
Additional funding required to meet ES/NFI kits requirements
Health Bureau and partners responding to acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) in Addis Ababa
Livelihood diversification projects enhancing recovery to El Niño-affected communities
· UNICEF has improved its quality assurance mechanism of the Community Management of Acute Malnutrition Programme by recruiting 10 more field monitors, deployed in SNNPR, Amhara and Oromia regions. The field monitors will monitor the progress and performance of the humanitarian response with respect to quality of service provided by the CMAM and the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) programmes and in response to the drought situation.
Government and humanitarian partners joint 2016 belg assessment underway
Third and fourth rounds of emergency relief programme ongoing
AWD cases confirmed in Addis Ababa
Scaled-up response required to curb the ongoing acute watery diarrhea (AWD) outbreak in Oromia, Somali and SNNP regions.
The National Disaster Risk Management Commission (NDRMC) alerting regions and the community on possible disasters following heavy k iremt rains
Rain breaks over the last two weeks eased food dispatches.
• The Acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) outbreak is still on going in 11 woredas, six zones of Oromia and Somali regions. By week 21, a total of 1, 935 AWD cases and 19 deaths (CFR 1%, AR 0.05%)had been reported. Harena woreda in Oromia region reported its first case, increasing the number of affected woredas from 10 to 11.
• No new cases of suspected yellow fever have been reported since the 22 reported during week 20/2016 in South Omo. Active surveillance continues in the area.
The El Niño-related drought continues to affect millions of Ethiopians, deepening food insecurity, malnutrition and increasing water shortages. The belg rain failure, erratic meher rains and flash floods have exacerbated these conditions in some areas. Additional health risks include the further spread of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD), measles and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). There is also an increased risk of outbreaks of yellow fever in the country.