Chad: Hepatitis E Outbreak - Sep 2016Ongoing
From 1 September 2016 until 13 January 2017, a total of 693 cases including 11 deaths of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) have been reported from Am Timan, Chad. Based on the available information, there appears to be a plateau in the number of cases reported in the past 5 weeks from the affected area with an average of 70 cases reported weekly where only a minor proportion (7.2%) requires hospitalization. The infectious risk seems confined to Am Timan and immediate surroundings. However, the event remains under close monitoring at all levels of WHO. (WHO, 24 Jan 2017)
As part of the UNICEF response to the Hepatitis E suspected epidemic, WASH supplies for disinfection and water treatment were made available to the Amtiman Health District. (UNICEF, 31 Dec 2016) MSF, in addition to providing medical care, has also implemented hygiene and sanitation activities since this virus is primarily transmitted from one person to another through contaminated water and in areas where access to quality water is limited. More than 600 MSF staff have been working to test for new cases, treat patients and improve water supplies and sanitation in the city of Am Timan, including chlorination of the city’s water towers. (MSF, 9 Feb 2017)
The outbreak of hepatitis E in the Salamat region of Chad continues to evolve, with one new district being affected. The potential of the outbreak to escalate is high given the prevailing predisposing factors. Only 25% of the 63,000 people in Am Timan, the epicenter of the outbreak, have access to clean and safe water. Meanwhile, about 30% of the 13,000 people in Aboudeïa have access to safe water. The local community continues to fetch and drink water from rain pools (ponds), sharing with animals and birds. The affected communities also have poor sanitation, commonly practicing free range open defecation. With these factors, in addition to the onset of rainy season expected soon, the risk of further spread of hepatitis E, as well as of cholera, remains very high. (WHO, 14 Apr 2017)
Since September 2016, 1,684 suspected cases of Hepatitis E (77 in July) have been reported in the 3 health districts of Salamat, of which 230 cases were tested and 130 of these confirmed positive (positive rate of 52.2%); 16 deaths have so far been reported (no death this month). As the Ministry of Public Health officially declared a Hepatitis E epidemic in the region of Salamat, the epidemiologic surveillance has been extended to the region’s 3 health districts and the 42 areas of responsibility (12 in Aboudeia, 18 in Am Timan, and 12 in Haraze health districts). (UNICEF, 31 Jul 2017)
The outbreak of hepatitis E in the Salamat region of Chad remains serious, with a high risk of escalation. During week 33, 23 new suspected cases and zero deaths were reported from four areas: Amtiman Nord (3), Amtiman Sud (2), Amsinéné (2), and Aboudeia (16). Of the 19 deaths reported, ve were pregnant women. ere was a resurgence of cases in Aboudeia in the reporting week. Active case detection and chlorination of water in Amtiman and Aboudeia continues. (WHO, 25 Aug 2017)
As of 24 November 2017, outbreaks are ongoing in the Salamat Region predominantly affecting North and South Am Timan, Amsinéné, South Am Timan, Mouraye, Foulonga and Aboudeia. Of the 64 cases occurring in pregnant women, five died (case fatality rate 7.8%) and 20 were hospitalized. Chlorination of water sources ended at the end of September 2017 because of a lack of partners and funding. (WHO, 24 Nov 2017)
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This SitRep was produced by OCHA in association with humanitarian partners and is focused on the internal displacements since 21 July 2015. It was published by OCHA Chad and covers the period from 1 July to 31 August 2017. The next publication will be around 1 December 2017.
The security situation remains fragile in Kaiga Kindjiria and Tchoukoutalia border areas. Humanitarian access remains limited.
La situation sécuritaire reste fragile dans les zones frontalières de Kaiga Kindjiria et Tchoukoutalia. L’accès humanitaire y reste limité.
La reprise des activités de l’OIM a permis de mettre à jour les chiffres de déplacements dans la région, avec un total de 123 204 personnes déplacées estimées dans près de 200 localités évaluées et 51 000 déplacés internes retournés dans leurs villages d’origine.
Preliminary results of the SMART were published showing an increase in the national prevalence of the global acute malnutrition (from 11.9% to 13.9%). This rate exceed the emergency threshold of 15% in 12 out of 23 regions of the country.
• A cholera outbreak is reported in Sila Region, eastern Chad, near the border with Sudan. 152 cases have been reported with 23 deaths by the end of August 2011
• 11 million USD have been allocated by the UFE CERF to Chad. 6.5 million USD will be used to support refugees and returnees from CAR with multipurpose cash, 3 million USD will ensure availability of basic services for CAR refugees and returnees (health, nutrition, education), and 1.5 million USD will be allocated to UNHAS to allow continued humanitarian access.
Contexte actuel (août 2017)
Since 22 July, an estimated 1,300 households totalling approximately 6,000 people arrived from Niger to a new site named Dar al-Kheir. These Arab nomads explained that they fled from the Diffa region out of fear of attacks following the recent withdrawal of Chadian soldiers protecting the area. As of end of July, their status (refugees, returnees or other) was still being discussed.
The 2017 nutrition SMART survey was launched with a pilot survey on 25 July, and data will be collected through smartphones, reducing errors.