Chad: Hepatitis E Outbreak - Sep 2016Ongoing
From 1 September 2016 until 13 January 2017, a total of 693 cases including 11 deaths of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) have been reported from Am Timan, Chad. Based on the available information, there appears to be a plateau in the number of cases reported in the past 5 weeks from the affected area with an average of 70 cases reported weekly where only a minor proportion (7.2%) requires hospitalization. The infectious risk seems confined to Am Timan and immediate surroundings. However, the event remains under close monitoring at all levels of WHO. (WHO, 24 Jan 2017)
As part of the UNICEF response to the Hepatitis E suspected epidemic, WASH supplies for disinfection and water treatment were made available to the Amtiman Health District. (UNICEF, 31 Dec 2016) MSF, in addition to providing medical care, has also implemented hygiene and sanitation activities since this virus is primarily transmitted from one person to another through contaminated water and in areas where access to quality water is limited. More than 600 MSF staff have been working to test for new cases, treat patients and improve water supplies and sanitation in the city of Am Timan, including chlorination of the city’s water towers. (MSF, 9 Feb 2017)
The outbreak of hepatitis E in the Salamat region of Chad continues to evolve, with one new district being affected. The potential of the outbreak to escalate is high given the prevailing predisposing factors. Only 25% of the 63,000 people in Am Timan, the epicenter of the outbreak, have access to clean and safe water. Meanwhile, about 30% of the 13,000 people in Aboudeïa have access to safe water. The local community continues to fetch and drink water from rain pools (ponds), sharing with animals and birds. The affected communities also have poor sanitation, commonly practicing free range open defecation. With these factors, in addition to the onset of rainy season expected soon, the risk of further spread of hepatitis E, as well as of cholera, remains very high. (WHO, 14 Apr 2017)
Since September 2016, 1,684 suspected cases of Hepatitis E (77 in July) have been reported in the 3 health districts of Salamat, of which 230 cases were tested and 130 of these confirmed positive (positive rate of 52.2%); 16 deaths have so far been reported (no death this month). As the Ministry of Public Health officially declared a Hepatitis E epidemic in the region of Salamat, the epidemiologic surveillance has been extended to the region’s 3 health districts and the 42 areas of responsibility (12 in Aboudeia, 18 in Am Timan, and 12 in Haraze health districts). (UNICEF, 31 Jul 2017)
The outbreak of hepatitis E in the Salamat region of Chad remains serious, with a high risk of escalation. During week 33, 23 new suspected cases and zero deaths were reported from four areas: Amtiman Nord (3), Amtiman Sud (2), Amsinéné (2), and Aboudeia (16). Of the 19 deaths reported, ve were pregnant women. ere was a resurgence of cases in Aboudeia in the reporting week. Active case detection and chlorination of water in Amtiman and Aboudeia continues. (WHO, 25 Aug 2017)
As of 3 September, hepatitis E outbreaks are ongoing in the Salamat Region predominantly affecting North and South Am Timan, Amsinéné, South Am Timan, Mouraye, Foulonga and Aboudeia. Of the 64 cases occurring in pregnant women, ve died (case fatality rate 7.8%) and 20 were hospitalized. (WHO, 29 Sep 2017)
N’Djamena le 16 février 2017 - Notre pays connait depuis le dernier trimestre de l'année 2016 une flambée d’ictère aiguë dans la Région du Salamat. Le District le plus affecté est celui d’Amtiman avec cinq (5) zones de responsabilité touchées sur Quinze (15). Il s’agit de : Amtiman Nord, Amtiman Sud, Ab-lelaye, Mina et Goz Djarat.
La date du 8 février 2017, le total cumulé donne 899 cas pour 45 hospitalisés ; les autres sont suivis de manière ambulatoire. On note malheureusement 11 décès dont 4 femmes enceintes.
Chad - Hepatitis E epidemic (OCHA, Ministry of Public Health, ECHO)
The Ministry of Public Health of Chad has officially declared an epidemic of Hepatitis E in the region of Salamat, south-eastern Chad. The epidemic has already claimed the life of 12 people, including 4 pregnant women. A total of 956 cases have been identified so far. MSF and UNICEF are currently working with the authorities to provide a response, in a context of insufficient epidemiological surveillance, very limited presence of medical actors and lack of safe access to water and sanitation.
L’épidémie a été déclarée dans le district sanitaire d'Am-Timan qui connait une flambée du virus de l'hépatite E (VHE), depuis septembre 2016
I- Qu’est ce que l’Hépatite « E » ?
L’hépatite E est une maladie du foie provoquée par un virus entrainant une atteinte du foie (hépatite).
Maladie causée par un virus qui se transmet essentiellement en buvant de l’eau souillée par des selles de malades ou d’animaux malades.
La maladie est courante dans les pays aux ressources limitées (comme le nôtre) ayant un faible accès aux services essentiels d’alimentation en eau potable, d’assainissement, d’hygiène et de santé.
Plus d’1,5 million de personnes ont été assistées par la communauté humanitaire au Tchad en 2016.
Près de 600 000 personnes, étaient en situation de déplacement à l’ouest, au sud et à l’est du Tchad à la fin 2016.
En 2016, plus de 3,7 millions de personnes ont été touchées par l’insécurité alimentaire dont plus d’un million en insécurité alimentaire sévère.
Malgré de multiples défis, plus d’1,5 million de personnes assistées en 2016
L’AIDE ALIMENTAIRE AUX RÉFUGIÉS MENACÉE PAR UN MANQUE DE FINANCEMENT
FUNDING GAP THREATENS FOOD ASSISTANCE TO CAR REFUGEES
Lack of financial resources is jeopardizing WFP and partners’ ability to provide livesaving food assistance to the refugees in eastern Cameroon, leaving a US$16 million gap in funding. A complete gap is expected from June onwards, pending new food consignments. Since last October, a decline in funding had already forced WFP to cut food and cash assistance by half to some 156,000 CAR refugees, who are now surviving on a minimal food ration.
NEW YORK/N’AJAMENA, CHAD, FEBRUARY 9, 2017—A hepatitis E outbreak is escalating across Am Timan, in the Salamat region of South-Eastern Chad, and more humanitarian actors are urgently needed to treat patients and contain further spread of the virus, the international medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) said today.
No major new displacement has taken place in the Lake region during December. At the end of 2016, there are 129,481 displaced persons, including IDPs, Chadian returnees from Nigeria and Niger, refugees and third-country nationals.
More than 120 sites and displacement locations are scattered around this remote region, making humanitarian assistance a logistical challenge.
From 1 September 2016 until 13 January 2017, a total of 693 cases including 11 deaths of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) have been reported from Am Timan, Chad.
Entre le 1er septembre 2016 et le 13 janvier 2017, 693 cas au total, parmi lesquels 11 cas mortels d’ictère aigu, ont été signalés à Am Timan, au Tchad.
Sur les 50 patients atteints d’ictère aigu qui ont été hospitalisés, 48 ont été soumis au dépistage de l’hépatite E par test de diagnostic rapide de l’hépatite E et 27 (56,3%) ont eu un résultat positif. Au total, à la fin de la semaine épidémiologique 2 en 2017, 126 tests de diagnostic rapide de l’hépatite E avaient été effectués, 57 (45,2%) étant positifs et 69 (54,8%) étant négatifs.
Despite incidents reported in Kaiga-Kindjiria area, the security situation remains relatively calm in the Lake region. A decrease in incidents has coincided with the surrender of elements associated with armed groups in recent weeks.
Results from the most recent national SMART survey indicate an 11.2% prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM). 153,738 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have been admitted and treated in nutritional units so far in 2016, reaching 79% of the annual target.
Heavily pregnant, Miriam rests on the bed as an MSF gynaecologist performs an ultrasound of her growing belly. She seems surprised when, unexpectedly, the outline of a baby appears on the monitor, and her expression quickly turns to relief as the translator confirms that Miriam’s unborn child is progressing well.
Miriam is one of 44 patients with hepatitis E who have been admitted to Am Timan hospital in Chad since September. More than 320 other potential cases have been identified.