South Sudan: Cholera Outbreak - Jul 2016
South Sudan’s Minister of Health advised partners to treat the recent rise in suspected cholera cases as a cholera outbreak, and respond accordingly. UNICEF’s Cholera Task Force is fully operational, and measures are being taken to enhance water, sanitation, and hygiene – over 100,000 liters of sewage were collected from UN House POC on 18 July. (UNICEF, 18 Jul 2016)
As of 17 November, communities along the River Nile are worst affected and account for 91 per cent of reported cholera cases. A total of 2,874 cases and all 44 deaths from the outbreak have been reported from eight counties straddling the River Nile: Awerial, Duk, Fangak, Juba, Leer, Pageri, Pigi and Terekeka. Rubkona is the only county affected by the outbreak that is not along the Nile. Juba has the highest number of cases (1,990 - 63 per cent of the total), while Terekeka has the highest case fatality rate. (OCHA, 21 Nov 2016)
As of 5 May 2017, cholera outbreaks have been confirmed in 19 counties in South Sudan. The most affected counties are located along the River Nile. This suggests vehicle-borne transmission from contaminated water in affected counties. Cumulatively, 7,735 cholera cases, including 246 deaths (76 facilities and 170 community) (CFR 3.23%), have been reported in South Sudan since the initial case was reported on 18 June 2016. Nine out of 19 counties ever affected since June 2016 are considered to have active transmission, having reported cholera cases in the past four weeks. (WHO, Govt. South Sudan, 5 May 2017)
Cholera transmission has continued to decline countrywide. In the last four weeks [weeks 37- 40] , cholera cases dropped from at least 40 cases in week 37 of 2017 to at least 15 cases in week 40 of 2017. Three counties [Juba, Budi, and Fangak] have registered cholera transmission in the last four weeks [ 37-40]. A total of 135 cases have been reported from the three counties in the last four weeks [37-40]. Most of the cases have been reported from Juba [112 cases] while Budi and Fangak reported 16 cases and 7 cases respectively. (WHO, 6 Oct 2017)
As part of the ongoing cholera response, health partners have deployed cholera vaccines to complement traditional prevention strategies in several high-risk populations and locations. This is the latest step in ongoing efforts to end South Sudan’s longest and deadliest cholera outbreak (OCHA, 18 Jan 2018.)
South Sudan declared the end of its longest and largest cholera outbreak on Wednesday (February 07), with no new cases of cholera reported in over seven weeks. (WHO, 7 Feb 2018.)
Maps & Infographics
- Completeness for IDSR reporting is 69% at county level and 82% for the IDP sites.
- A total of 15 alerts were reported, of which 40% have been verified. 0 alerts were risk assessed and 0 required a response.
- Rift Valley Fever outbreak - Yirol East with 28 suspect human cases including 5 confirmed; 3 probable; 12 none-cases; and 8 pending classification. One confirmed animal case (cow).
- Measles response completed in Cueibet where the reactive vaccination campaign administrative coverage was 58,842 (87%).
• Aid agencies provide assistance and protection to over 5.4 million of people in South Sudan.
• Renewed fighting in multiple locations of Jonglei and Unity forces thousands of people to flee their homes, with some crossing to Ethiopia as refugees.
• Funding appeal for US$1.5 billion launched to support refugees fleeing the worsening humanitarian situation in South Sudan.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 54 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
Declaration of the end of cholera outbreak in South Sudan
Humanitarian crisis in Central African Republic
Cholera in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Hepatitis E in Namibia
Cholera in Angola
Annual lean season begins early across South Sudan
GoRSS declares end of cholera outbreak
Clashes continue despite cessation of hostilities agreement
With the confirmation of Rift Valley Fever (RVF), in Yirol East, Lakes State, UNICEF has been providing support in the overall coordination of investigation and response activities being carried out by the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the World Health Organization (WHO) through a multi-sectoral taskforce. UNICEF launched a media and community risk communications campaign people with information on risk factors, symptoms and preventive measures.
- Completeness for IDSR reporting is 63% at county level and 77% for the IDP sites.
- A total of 5 alerts were reported, of which 20% have been verified. 0 alerts were risk assessed and 0 required a response.
- Rift Valley Fever outbreak - Yirol East with 26 suspect human cases including 3 confirmed; 3 probable; 4 none-cases; and 16 pending classification. One confirmed animal case (cow).
Juba, South Sudan, 07 February 2018 – South Sudan declared the end of its longest and largest cholera outbreak on Wednesday (February 07), with no new cases of cholera reported in over seven weeks.
The fight against cholera in South Sudan has involved a range of partners working together to enhance surveillance, deploy rapid response teams to investigate and respond to cases, provide clean water, promote good hygiene practices and treat cholera patients.
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on selected acute public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 55 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
Humanitarian crisis in Ethiopia
Lassa fever in Benin
Lassa fever in Nigeria
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Uganda
Rift Valley fever in South Sudan
Major Epidemiological Developments W3 2018
• Completeness for IDSR reporting is 59% at county level and 77% for the IDP sites.
• A total of 29 alerts were reported, of which 28% have been verified. 0 alerts were risk assessed and 0 required a response.
• Rift Valley Fever outbreak - Yirol East with 20 suspect human cases including 3 confirmed; 3 probable; 4 none-cases; and 10 pending classification. One confirmed animal case (cow).
Epidemic Trends and Updates
- There is no active cholera transmission in any of the 24 counties where cholera has been confirmed in 2017.
- Two confirmed cases reported retrospectively in Juba in week 50 and are consistent with sporadic transmission.
- Current activities entail – updating cholera plan, catching up on pending second round oral cholera vaccine campaigns, and addressing the underlying risk factors by improving access to safe water and improved sanitation facilities.
Situation and Needs of Children in South Sudan
As of end of December, UNICEF received US$169.8 million, against its US$181 million appeal (83 per cent funded). With this assistance UNICEF delivered assistance to 2.3 million people, of whom 2.1 million were children.
Southern and East African countries are facing a severe cholera outbreak that is exposing the failure in public sanitation and the impact of government neglect.
Last year, there were more than 109,442 cholera cases resulting in 1,708 deaths in 12 countries in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR), according to the UN children’s agency, UNICEF.
Foreword from the Regional Director
A famine was declared in early 2017 in South Sudan – the first famine declaration anywhere in the world in six years. Although localized famine had subsided by the middle of the year due to a strong, well-coordinated response by UNICEF and other humanitarian agencies, some 4.8 million people remained severely food insecure by the end of 2017. This number is likely to go up with an earlier-than-expected start to the lean season in 2018.
Action humanitaire pour les enfants en 2018
L’année 2017 a été impitoyable pour les enfants.
Aujourd’hui, un enfant sur quatre dans le monde vit dans un pays en conflit ou ravagé par des bouleversements majeurs. Près de 50 millions de filles et de garçons ont dû fuir de chez eux en raison de violences, de la pauvreté ou de catastrophes naturelles.
Ces chiffres soulignent une réalité alarmante : l’impact des crises humanitaires sur les enfants a atteint des niveaux effroyables.
UNICEF seeks $3.6 billion in emergency assistance for 48 million children caught up in catastrophic humanitarian crises
- 117 million people living through conflict and disaster lack access to safe water
- 84 per cent of appeal for children in countries affected by violence and conflict.
NEW YORK/GENEVA, 30 January 2018 – UNICEF appealed today for $3.6 billion to provide lifesaving humanitarian assistance to 48 million children living through conflict, natural disasters and other emergencies in 51 countries in 2018.
The Eastern and Southern Africa region continues to face multiple and more frequent humanitarian crises, including conflict and insecurity, economic shocks, climate change, natural hazards and disease outbreaks.1 More than 17 million people (45 per cent children) remain food insecure throughout the region.