Somalia: Cholera Outbreak - Apr 2016Ongoing
Humanitarian partners have stepped up response to the outbreak...Projections of 15,000 severe and 60,000 moderate cases over the coming months have led to plans for a significant and rapid scale up of the response. To help stabilize and contain the outbreak, the CERF rapid response grant of $2 million will strengthen and complement response activities already underway by WASH and Health partners. (OCHA, 30 May 2016)
Since the beginning of , a total of 14165 case of AWD and 497 deaths have been reported in different parts of Somalia. Of these 47.7% are female while 57.9% are children below 5 years. [...] there has been a gradual reduction in number of cases from the peak 1,853 cases and 187 deaths (CFR 10.0%) in week 15 to 194 cases and 0 death in week 46. (WHO, 20 Nov 2016)
Drought conditions have increased the spread of epidemic-prone diseases such as acute watery diarrhoea, cholera and measles. In the first 7 weeks of 2017, more than 6000 cases and 65 deaths by acute watery diarrhoea/ cholera were reported. (WHO, 27 Feb 2017)
The AWD/cholera epidemic in Hiraan, Nugal, Mudug and Bari and Banadir region has been controlled and the cholera treatment centre in Beletweyne has been closed. 2016's outbreak was one of the worst and longest in which the country has experienced in the last five years. (WHO, 5 Mar 2017)
On 15 March 2017, the Government of Somalia, together with humanitarian partners, launched an Oral Cholera Vaccination campaign, the first of its kind in Somalia, targeting over 450,000 people in seven high-risk areas around the country...WASH partners have furthermore scaled up response to AWD/Cholera, reaching 316,000 people in southern and central Somalia through distribution of hygiene kits, chlorination of water points and hygiene promotion campaigns as of end of February. In total, some 568,600 people were assisted with temporary and/or sustainable access to safe water, 36,000 people with safe sanitation and 498,000 people with hygiene promotion activities. (OCHA, 24 Mar 2017)
In 2017, a total of 53,015 AWD/Cholera cases have been reported across 52 districts in 16 regions, including 795 deaths (CFR 1.5 per cent). This represents the worst case scenario with an attack rate (AR) of 5.5 per 1,000 people. 41 per cent of the cases are among children below five years with a slightly higher CFR (1.8%) compared to children above five years (1.4 per cent). The number of AWD/Cholera cases in 2017 is more than three times the 2016 caseload, and 10 times the 2015 caseload. Whilst the cumulative CFR is declining from 2.3 per cent at the beginning of the outbreak to 1.5 per cent as of last week, the reported CFR from inaccessible areas is still four times higher. (UNICEF, 30 Jun 2017)
The month of August has seen a sustained decline in the number of cases of cholera reported from across Somalia. The 917 cases recorded in August 2017 now approximate to the averaged monthly figures recorded in 2015 of 440 cases and during 2016 of 1,300 cases/month. (Health Cluster, 29 Sep 2017)
There have been no reported AWD deaths this month. The 650 AWD cases recorded in the month of September has is part of a sustained decline in the number of cases of cholera reported from across Somalia. In total. 77,783 suspected cases of cholera have been reported since the beginning of 2017 . Due to the reduction in new cases, the focus is currently on cholera preparedness in advance of the forthcoming October rains. (Health Cluster, 19 Oct 2017)
Over the past two months there has been a significant reduction in the number of new AWD/Cholera cases in all regions of Somalia. No AWD/cholera related deaths have been reported since August in any region across Somalia. (Health Cluster, 31 Oct 2017)
Cholera cases and deaths have declined significantly during the month of November 2017 with less districts reporting cases as compared to previous months. (WHO, 30 Nov 2017)
During the month of December 2017, 388 cholera cases, with no death, were reported across the country as compared to 435 cases, with no death, reported in November 2017. The cumulative number of cholera cases reported from January to December 2017 is 79 172 including 1 159 associated deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.46 % reported in 52 districts of the country. Cholera cases have declined significantly during the month of December 2017 with fewer districts reporting cases as compared to previous months. The overall case fatality rate has declined remarkably during the last three months. No death was recorded since August 2017. (WHO, 31 Dec 2017)
More than 5,796 cholera / AWD cases and 74 deaths (Case Fatality Rate: 1.3%) have been reported in 9 of 21 countries of Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR) since the beginning of 2018. These countries include; Angola, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
The Somalia Drought Impact and Needs Assessment (DINA), a process led by the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and Federal Member States (FMS), with technical and financial support by the World Bank (WB), United Nations (UN) and European Union (EU), aims to reduce the country’s vulnerability to climate shocks, strengthen resilience and significantly reduce the future risk of famine in Somalia.
The Somalia Drought Impact and Needs Assessment (DINA), a process led by the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) in partnership with the Federal Member States (FMS), the World Bank (WB), United Nations (UN) and European Union (EU), aims to reduce the country’s vulnerability to climate shocks, strengthen resilience and significantly reduce the future risk of famine in Somalia.
This drought impact and needs assessment (DINA) was conducted using remote sensing technology to validate findings. This DINA goes beyond determining the damages, losses and resulting needs; it aims for a multi-sectoral, phased recovery strategy focused on strengthening resilience to future disasters and effectively preventing the cyclical risk of famine.
Somalia – IOM, the United Nations Migration Agency, has partnered with Americares to donate more than eight tonnes of medical supplies, for distribution across IOM project locations in Somaliland, Puntland, Lower Juba, Gedo and Banadir regions. The supplies will immediately be dispatched to IOM’s static and mobile clinics, to increase local access to life-saving primary healthcare services.
Total of 226 health facilities across Somalia have submitted weekly report of communicable diseases in the electronic early warning disease surveillance system in week 5, 2018.
Total number of consultations decreased from 66,114 in week 4 to 57,359 in week 5.
The highest number of diseases reported in week 5 were: other acute diarrhoea (2,182 cases), influenza like illness (2,109 cases) followed by severe acute respiratory illness (701 cases).
The Horn and East Africa region has been affected by yet another drought with hardly any reprieve from the 2016 El Nino induced crisis. By end of March 2017 the UN estimated that 22.9 million people in the greater Horn were food insecure, a figure expected to rise as the crisis worsens. The number of people affected in the three countries is 8.5 million people in Ethiopia, 3.2 million in Somalia and 3.4 million in Kenya.
5.4 million people in need of humanitarian and protection services
4 million children are in need of humanitarian assistance
4.4 million people in need of water, sanitation and hygiene services
1.2 million children under-5 projected to be malnourished in 2018
1 Million+ people displaced due to drought and conflict in 2017
2.4 Million children require education support
5.7 Million people require health support
According to the FSNAU-FEWSNET 2017 Post Deyr findings, despite a limited improvement in food security and nutrition, the situation remains fragile, with 5.4 million people in need of urgent assistance, including an estimated 2.8 million children.
During the reporting period, UNICEF reached 65,598 IDPs in Banadir, Buuhoodle and Nugaal regions through temporary access to water supply by water trucking, voucher and chlorination.
More than 4,057 cholera / AWD cases and 51 deaths (Case Fatality Rate: 1.3%) have been reported in 11 of 21 countries of Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR) since the beginning of 2018. These countries include; Angola, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Somalia: REACH Multi-Cluster Needs Assessment highlights concerning access to water and food
Southern and East African countries are facing a severe cholera outbreak that is exposing the failure in public sanitation and the impact of government neglect.
Last year, there were more than 109,442 cholera cases resulting in 1,708 deaths in 12 countries in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region (ESAR), according to the UN children’s agency, UNICEF.
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs represent vital components of USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) responses to slow - and rapid -onset di sasters and complex emergencies , which render populations more susceptible to illness and death from waterborne and communicable diseases.
Famine risk declines, but needs remain high.
$1.5 billion needed to sustain life-saving and livelihood support
Efforts to boost famine resistance
Displacement worsens vulnerability
Localization of aid
Famine risk declines, but needs remain high
Some 5.4 million people are now in need of assistance
Mogadishu, 30 January 2018
I was last here in Somalia in January and May last year - just before taking the position as Emergency Relief Coordinator - when this country was one of the four countries in the world threatened by famine. There has only been one famine in the world in the last twenty years, here in Somalia, which took the lives of a quarter of a million people in 2011.
Somalia is currently experiencing the effects of prolonged drought conditions leading to food and water scarcity and consequent malnutrition and increased population displacement.
THESE EXTREME CONDITIONS CREATE INCREASING HEALTH NEEDS
The cholera outbreak has been contained. The suspected measles outbreak is ongoing, in addition to the critical situation of severe acute malnutrition. WHO and partners have scaled up efforts to control and prevent further spread of these diseases.
In November 2017, an estimated 435 Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD) cases and no deaths were recorded from 10 regions.
The overall trends of AWD cases have significantly declined with no deaths being recorded in the past three months.
Since the beginning of 2017, the cumulative number of suspected cases of cholera reported are 78,784 including 1,159 deaths (CFR-1.5%)