Benin/Nigeria/Togo: Lassa Fever Outbreak - Jan 2016
As of 23 January, 82 people were reported to have died of Lassa fever in Nigeria. Of the total, 34 have already been confirmed to be due to the viral haemorrhagic fever, according to Nigeria’s Centre for Disease Control. The disease, which first broke out in November, has spread to 10 states. Lassa fever is endemic in Nigeria and causes outbreaks almost every year in different parts of the country, but more in some states than others particularly during the dry season. (OCHA, 26 Jan 2016)
In Togo, two cases were reported in February 2016. The affected area in Togo borders with Benin. (WHO, 23 Mar 2016)
In Nigeria, as of 17 May 2016, 8 states are currently reporting Lassa fever cases (suspected, probable, and confirmed), deaths and/or following of contacts for the maximum 21-day incubation period. Currently, 248 contacts are being followed up in the country. The other 15 previously affected states have completed the 42-day period following last known possible transmission....Overall, the Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria shows a declining trend. Considering the seasonal peaks in previous years, improvements in community and health care worker awareness, preparedness and general response activities, the risk of a larger-scale outbreak is low. ([WHO, 27 May 2016](https://reliefweb.int/node/ (WHO, 23 Mar 2016)
On 25 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point of Benin notified WHO of an outbreak of Lassa fever...On 23 May 2016, the Ministry of Health of Benin declared the end of the outbreak. The announcement came 42 days after the detection of the last Lassa fever case in the country...The current report confirms that, at present, there are no known Lassa fever transmission chains in Benin. (10 April 2016). (WHO, 13 Jun 2016)
This document is designed to make it easier for agencies to raise Start Fund anticipatory alerts for disease outbreaks, or to submit Start Fund project proposals when an alert has been activated.
The Start Fund Crisis Anticipation Window enables members to begin responding before a crisis turns into a disaster. Acting in anticipation of humanitarian crises is new for many agencies. It can be difficult to decide when to trigger an anticipatory alert through the Start Fund and what activities are the most effective.
During his November 7, 2016, visit to Nigeria, Minister Dion announced that Canada is providing $395,000 to the Lagos State Ministry of Health to help in the design of a new biological laboratory and secure repository (biobank) of infectious diseases, such as Ebola virus disease and Lassa fever. The objective is to ensure fail-safe readiness for any subsequent breakouts of such diseases.
As of 31 August 2016, UN-coordinated appeals and refugee response plans as covered by the Global Humanitarian Overview (GHO) require US$21.7 billion to meet the needs of 95.4 million people affected by humanitarian crises in 40 countries. Global requirements are adjusted throughout the year as response plans are revised, both upwards and downwards, to reflect up-to-date needs.
The current decrease has resulted from revisions of plans for Ethiopia, Afghanistan and Yemen.
As of 31 July 2016, UN-coordinated Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP), Flash Appeals and Regional Refugee Plans as covered by the Global Humanitarian Overview (GHO) require US$21.9 billion to meet the needs of 96.9 million people affected by humanitarian crises in 40 countries. The appeals are funded at $7.2 billion, with unmet requirements totalling $14.7 billion. Overall, donors have contributed $13.7 billion towards humanitarian operations in 2016 and pledged a further $814.4 million.
Disease epidemics result in substantial ill health and loss of lives and therefore pose a threat to global health security, undermine socio-economic lives and destabilize societies.
Le 25 janvier 2016, le point focal national RSI pour le Bénin a notifié à l’OMS une flambée de fièvre de Lassa (cf. Bulletin publié le 19 février).
Le 23 mai 2016, le Ministère béninois de la santé a déclaré la fin de cette flambée. Cette annonce a été faite 42 jours après la détection du dernier cas de fièvre de Lassa dans ce pays (10 avril 2016).
On 25 January 2016, the National IHR Focal Point of Benin notified WHO of an outbreak of Lassa fever (see DON published on 19 February).
On 23 May 2016, the Ministry of Health of Benin declared the end of the outbreak. The announcement came 42 days after the detection of the last Lassa fever case in the country (10 April 2016).
This issue focuses on the ongoing Yellow fever , Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Cholera, Zika outbreaks and the health consequences of El Niño.
There has been re-emergence of urban Yellow Fever (YF) outbreaks in Angola that have spread to the neighboring DR Congo and some cases have been exported to China and Kenya. Another outbreak of Yellow Fever has been reported in Uganda but it is not epidemiologically linked to the Angola or DR Congo outbreaks. Instead it is linked to a YF outbreak that occurred in Northern Uganda in 2010.
As of 30 May 2016, financial requirements of UN-coordinated Humanitarian Response Plans, Flash Appeals and Regional Refugee Plans as reflected in the Global Humanitarian Overview (GHO) amount to an unprecedented US$20.8 billion and are expected to rise. These appeals are currently funded at $4.8 billion, or 23 per cent. $16 billion in financial requirements remain unmet. Overall, humanitarian operations in 2016 are funded at almost $9.2 billion.
Between August 2015 and 17 May 2016, WHO has been notified of 273 cases of Lassa fever, including 149 deaths in Nigeria. Of these, 165 cases and 89 deaths have been confirmed through laboratory testing (CFR: 53.9%). The cases were reported from 23 states in Nigeria.
Since August 2015, ten health care workers (HCW) have been infected with Lassa fever virus, of which two have died. Of these ten cases, four were nosocomial infections.
- 265 Epidemic focus: Lassa Fever
- 266 Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, April 2016– conclusions and recommendations
- 265 Gros plan sur les épidémies: Fièvre de Lassa
- 266 Réunion du Groupe stratégique consultatif d’experts sur la vaccination, avril 2016 – conclusions et recommandations
Three million people in the Lake Chad region are facing severe food shortages.
In Nigeria’s Borno and Yobe states, 800,000 people need immediate assistance.
Clashes between herders and farmers in Côte d’Ivoire displace over 6,000 people.
Between January and April, DRC reports 5,757 cholera cases.
Ebola resurfaces for the third time in Liberia, Guinea sees its first flare-up.
People displaced in Lake Chad Basin - 2.4M
Syria: In recent weeks, clashes between Islamic State and other non-government forces over the border area between Turkey and Syria have intensified. IDPs in camps located along the border are at risk: over 35,000 have fled the area since 14 April and are in need of protection. Additional displacement is likely.
Iraq: The humanitarian situation in besieged Fallujah continues to deteriorate. Supply lines have been cut off since December, when government forces surrounded the city. Islamic State is reportedly preventing people from leaving. Prices of basic food stuffs are 500% above December prices for the third consecutive month. Acute shortages of food, medicine and fuel, as well as cases of starvation and suicide, have been reported.
In 2016 over 125 million people living in crisis-affected countries are in need of humanitarian assistance. The humanitarian community is committed to providing aid to over 87 million of those in need. The risks to health posed by humanitarian emergencies are at an all-time high. Developments such as climate change, urbanization, population growth and worsening civil conflict are increasing the frequency and severity of many types of emergencies. Attacks on health workers and health facilities are also on the rise.
Snapshot 31 March–5 April 2016
Syria: The most serious violation of the cessation of hostilities occurred on 2 April around Aleppo, when fighting broke out between government forces and non-government forces. In addition, eight of 18 besieged areas were not reached by humanitarian assistance in February and March, including around 250,000 people in Darayya and Eastern Ghouta in Rural Damascus.
1 APRIL 2016 - Lassa fever has killed more than 160 people in West Africa, most of them in Nigeria, since November 2015. Many of these lives could have been saved if a rapid diagnostic test were available so that people could receive treatment early.
Since November 2015, Nigeria, Benin, Sierra Leone and Togo have reported more than 300 cases of Lassa fever and 164 deaths. Nigeria accounts for the majority of the cases with 266 cases and 138 deaths reported in 22 of the country’s 34 provinces. Benin has recorded 51 cases and 25 deaths, Togo and Sierra Leone each reported 2 cases.